How Did Victoria Lee Die
No Evidence Victoria Lee Died From Vaccine SADS! –

  1. It’s now a tradition for anti-vaccination activists to immediately blame all athlete deaths or illnesses on the COVID-19 vaccine.
  2. This is yet another example of FAKE NEWS created and propagated by anti-vaccination activists, and here are the reasons why
  3. Fact #1 : Victoria Lee’s Cause Of Death Died On Boxing Day 2022
  4. Victoria Lee (born Victoria Sun-hei Lee on May 17, 2004) was an American mixed martial artist, who was the youngest fighter to ever compete in ONE Championship.
  5. She was the sister of MMA fighters Angela Lee and Christian Lee, and was the current ONE women’s atomweight champion, having successfully defended the title five times since she won it in 2016.

On Saturday, January 7, 2023, Angela Lee that her younger sister, Victoria Lee, died almost two weeks earlier – on Monday, December 26, 2022. Victoria Lee was only 18 years old when she died.

  • A celebration of her life has been scheduled for January 22, 2023, before her burial at the Valley of the Temples Memorial Park.
  • Fact #2 : Her Sister Suggested Victoria Lee Died From Suicide
  • Victoria Lee’s official cause of death is currently unknown.

While her sister, Angela, did not reveal how she died, she hinted in her that Victoria committed suicide. She advised everyone to check on their loved ones, and ” keep checking on them ” and ” tell them how much they mean “. That’s really as strong a hint as you can get (from a grieving sister) that Victoria Lee died from suicide.

  1. Angela later called for people to stop, or about her sister’s sudden death.
  2. Read more :
  3. Fact #3 : Victoria Lee Was Set To Defend Her Title
  4. Victoria Lee was the reigning ONE women’s atomweight champion, but has not fought since September 21, 2021 when she defeated Brazilian MMA fighter Victoria Souza in Singapore.
  5. She put MMA fights aside while she focus on graduating from high school, which she in May 2022.
  6. Before her death, Victoria Lee was slated to defend her title against 24 year-old Zeba Bano from India, for the ONE on Prime Video 6 event in Bangkok on Saturday, January 14, 2023.

It is unknown whether this upcoming match was a catalyst for her death. Victoria Lee had a flawless record of 3-0, and had been working hard at the gym to get ready.

  • Her brother, Christian Lee, recently the ONE Welterweight World Title on November 20, 2022; and was helping his sister train for the upcoming fight.
  • Fact #4 : Victoria Lee Was Likely Fully-Vaccinated Against COVID-19
  • Victoria Lee has never officially revealed her vaccination status, but she was likely fully-vaccinated against COVID-19 before September 21, 2021.

That is because Singapore at that time required all foreign travellers to be fully-vaccinated to enter the country. Therefore, Victoria Lee would have to receive her second dose at least two weeks before flying into Singapore for her September 21, 2021 match against Victoria Souza.

  1. Fact #5 : Vaccine Side Effects Appear Within Hours / Days
  2. While Victoria Lee was likely fully-vaccinated against COVID-19, it is impossible for the COVID-19 vaccine to cause her death as she would have received her doses at least 15 months ago!
  3. She cannot possibly have died from a vaccine side effect, because they appear within hours or days, not months later.
  4. Mild side effects like injection site pain, fever, muscle ache, headache, lethargy develop within minutes to hours of the vaccination.
  5. Anaphylaxis develops within minutes, while other severe adverse reactions like and develop within days,

The spike proteins produced by the COVID-19 vaccines also do not stick around for months. If these spike proteins are permanent (as antivaxxers claim), we would have lifelong immunity. Your own immune system will identify the spike proteins as foreign, and destroy them within a matter of days, although some may last for up to a few weeks.

  • Recommended :
  • Fact #6 : Claims Of Athletes Injured By COVID-19 Vaccine Proven False
  • This is yet another example of anti-vaccination activists abusing athlete deaths / injuries to create and propagate FAKE NEWS about the safety and efficacy of COVID-19 vaccines.
  • So far, claims of athlete deaths / injuries due to the COVID-19 vaccine have been proven false in every instance, Here are some examples:

Will these anti-vaccination activists apologise for lying to you? Nope! They will just move on to the next athlete tragedy Please help us FIGHT FAKE NEWS by sharing this fact check article out, and please SUPPORT our work! Don’t forget to protect yourself, and your family, by vaccinating against COVID-19!

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Please support us by visiting our sponsors, participating in the, or, Thank you! : Did MMA prodigy Victoria Lee die from vaccine SADS?!

What is the cause of Victoria death?

How did Victoria die? – Victoria died of a cerebral haemorrhage, which is a type of stroke. However, the Queen had been growing weaker for several years before her death. Her eyesight had become clouded by cataracts, and she was a wheelchair user due to her rheumatism.

  • In one of her last diary entries on the 4 January 1901, she wrote: “From not having been well, I see so badly, which is very tiresome.” In the second week of January, the Queen’s doctors found she had suffered from a series of minor strokes, and the end was coming.
  • The royal family came to Osborne House to pay their respects.

On her death bed, she whispered that Turi, her Pomeranian dog, be brought to her. Her last diary entry was written from Osborne House on Sunday 13 January 1901. It reads: Had a fair night, but was a little wakeful. Got up earlier & had some milk. — Lenchen came & read some papers.

— Out before 1, in the garden chair, Lenchen & Beatrice going with me. — Rested a little, had some food, & took a short drive with Lenchen & Beatrice. — Rested when I came in & at 5.30, went down to the Drawing room, where a short service was held, by Mr Clement Smith, who performed it so well, & it was a great comfort to me.

— Rested again afterwards, then did some signing & dictated to Lenchen.

Which rising MMA star died at 18?

Victoria Lee, rising MMA star, dies at 18 Mixed martial arts rising star Victoria Lee has died at 18. In an post on Saturday, MMA fighter Angela Lee shared that her younger sister, Victoria, had died last year on Dec.26, 2022. No cause of death was shared.

“She has gone too soon and our family has been completely devastated since then,” she wrote. “We miss her. More than anything in this world. Our family will never be the same. Life will never be the same.” Angela continued, adding, “Victoria was the most beautiful soul who ever lived. She was the best little sister in the world.

The best daughter, the best granddaughter and the best godma / aunty to Ava and Alia.” “We miss you so much sis. More than you could ever realize,” she wrote. “We’re all broken. Because a piece of you was in each of us and when you left, those pieces were ripped out of us.

We will never be the same.” Angela wrote that since her sister’s death, she’s constantly reminded of Victoria. The athlete explained, “Each and every little thing makes me think of you. From the sun rays, to the sunset. You taught us to see the beauty in the simple things.” The family did not immediately respond to a request for comment.

Tributes for the young rising star poured in across social media, including a post from ONE Championship, a global sports media platform, mourning the athlete. “The ONE Championship team is devastated over the tragic passing of Victoria Lee,” a post on read.

  1. We send our most heartfelt condolences to her family and friends at this difficult time.” On, ONE Championship’s CEO Chatri Sityodtong shared a touching message, stating he was “heartbroken” by Victoria’s death.
  2. I first met Victoria when she was 11 years old.
  3. I watched her blossom over the years as a martial artist and a human being,” Sityodtong wrote.

“I always remember thinking how wise, thoughtful, and selfless she was beyond her years. Of course, she was an extraordinary martial arts prodigy even back then, but I could see that she was so much more than that.” Sityodtong said the young fighter had a “heart of gold and a brilliant mind,” adding, “She looked after others before herself.

She wanted to use her life to help the world. I will always remember Victoria for the beautiful and precious soul that she was.” Victoria is survived by her parents, Ken and Jewelz Lee, her sister Angela, 26, brothers Christian, 24, and Adrian, 17, and niece Ava, 1, who Angela shares with her husband Bruno Pucci.

All of Victoria’s siblings are involved in MMA. Angela became the youngest person to win a world title in MMA in 2016, while Christian is the current ONE Welterweight World Champion and ONE Lightweight World Champion. Adrian is the newest to join the family business and in December 2022.

When was Victoria Lee’s last fight?

ONE women’s atomweight MMA athlete Victoria Lee tragically passed away on December 26, 2022. The ONE Championship team is devastated over this news and sends our most heartfelt condolences to her family and friends at this difficult time. Victoria – the young sister of ONE World Champions Angela and Christian Lee – earned three victories in her ONE career, last defeating Victoria Souza via second-round TKO in September 2021.

  1. Angela revealed the tragic news of Victoria’s passing on social media and paid tribute to her sister.
  2. ONE Championship Chairman and CEO Chatri Sityodtong also paid tribute to Victoria on social media,
  3. He said: “I am heartbroken by Victoria Lee’s passing.
  4. I first met Victoria when she was 11 years old.

I watched her blossom over the years as a martial artist and a human being. I always remember thinking how wise, thoughtful, and selfless she was beyond her years. Of course, she was an extraordinary martial arts prodigy even back then, but I could see that she was so much more than that.

  1. Victoria had the purest heart of gold and a brilliant mind.
  2. She looked after others before herself.
  3. She wanted to use her life to help the world.
  4. I will always remember Victoria for the beautiful and precious soul that she was.
  5. May you rest in peace, Victoria.
  6. We will all miss you.
  7. I send my love, prayers, strength, and light to Ken, Jewelz, Angela, Christian, Adrian, and all of their loved ones.

I am so truly heartbroken for your loss. May God bless you.”

How did Bruce Lee die?

Who killed Bruce Lee? The hyponatraemia hypothesis Department of Nephrology and Hypertension, IIS-Fundacion Jimenez Diaz UAM, Madrid, Spain Find articles by

  • Department of Nephrology and Hypertension, IIS-Fundacion Jimenez Diaz UAM, Madrid, Spain
  • RICORS2040; Madrid, Spain
  • Departamento de Medicina, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Madrid, Spain

Find articles by

  1. Department of Nephrology and Hypertension, IIS-Fundacion Jimenez Diaz UAM, Madrid, Spain
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  3. Departamento de Farmacología, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Madrid, Spain

Find articles by

  • Department of Nephrology and Hypertension, IIS-Fundacion Jimenez Diaz UAM, Madrid, Spain
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Find articles by

  1. Department of Nephrology and Hypertension, IIS-Fundacion Jimenez Diaz UAM, Madrid, Spain
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  3. Departamento de Medicina, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Madrid, Spain

Find articles by

  • Department of Nephrology and Hypertension, IIS-Fundacion Jimenez Diaz UAM, Madrid, Spain
  • RICORS2040; Madrid, Spain
  • Departamento de Medicina, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Madrid, Spain

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Find articles by Bruce Lee brought attention to martial arts in the Western world and popularized the quote ‘Be water, my friend’. Lee died at the age of 32 years in Hong Kong on 20 July 1973, under mysterious circumstances. The cause of death is unknown, although numerous hypotheses have been proposed, from assassination by gangsters to the more recent suggestion in 2018 that he died from heatstroke.

The necropsy showed cerebral oedema. A prior episode was diagnosed as cerebral oedema 2 months earlier. We now propose, based on an analysis of publicly available information, that the cause of death was cerebral oedema due to hyponatraemia. In other words, we propose that the kidney’s inability to excrete excess water killed Bruce Lee.

In this regard, Lee had multiple risk factors for hyponatraemia that may have included high chronic fluid intake, factors that acutely increase thirst (marijuana) and factors that decrease the ability of the kidneys to excrete water by either promoting secretion of antidiuretic hormone (ADH) or interfering with water excretion mechanisms in kidney tubules: prescription drugs (diuretics, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, opioids, antiepileptic drugs), alcohol, chronic low solute intake, a past history of acute kidney injury and exercise.

  1. Eywords: Bruce Lee death, cannabis, cerebral oedema, diuretics, heatstroke, hyponatraemia, low osmolar intake, opioids, SIADH ‘Be water, my friend’ Bruce Lee, 1940–1973.
  2. Bruce Lee was the most influential martial artist of all time.
  3. He inspired millions of people and brought attention to martial arts in the Western world.

He was born Lee Jun-fan on 27 November 1940, in San Francisco, California, while his opera singer father was touring the United States. He returned with his parents to Hong Kong as an infant and worked as a child actor. At age 13, he began learning martial arts.

  1. At age 18, he returned to the United States where he studied drama and philosophy and opened a martial arts school.
  2. At age 26, he first appeared as a martial arts fighter on American television.
  3. Lee created his own combat method that he called Jeet Kune Do or the Way of the Intercepting Fist, which combined different training methods such as kung fu, fencing, boxing and philosophy.

He popularized philosophical quotes, such as the one starting ‘Be water, my friend’, He returned to Hong Kong at the age of 29, where he became a writer, director, lead actor and fight scene choreographer. Lee died at the age of 32 in Hong Kong on 20 July 1973, under mysterious circumstances.

Theories For Against
Hypersensitivity to Equagesic Official cause of death Not first time of consumption
No typical salicylate overdose signs/symptoms
Toxicology report (?)
Assassinated by Mafia (Italian, Chinese, or American) 2 weeks before death, Lee threatened Lo Wei, who was reported to have mobster connections No evidence of physical injury or poison in autopsy
Family curse Lee’s son, Brandon Lee, died at the age of 28 years: he was shot in a film set when a prop gun fired a live bullet
Bruce Lee’s older brother died at the age of 3 months under mysterious circumstances
Cannabis Necropsy found marijuana in stomach Oral ingestion is not likely to lead to acute intoxication
Heatstroke 20 July 1973 was reported to be a very warm day 20 July 1973 not warmer than average for summer in Hong KongSudden death is unusual No evidence of multiorgan dysfunction in necropsy
Axillary gland removal 3 months before death a Axillary gland removal not enough to derange thermoregulation.Lee was studied months earlier because of profuse sweating
Hypothetical prior episode No evidence of previous episodes
Profuse sweating in 10 May event
Cocaine use Lee requested cocaine in writing to Bob Baker No evidence of cardiovascular comorbidity
No positive toxicology report announced
Epilepsy Seizure on 10 May 1973 in the course of prior episode diagnosed as cerebral oedema No chronic epilepsyNo tongue bitemarks On treatment with antiepileptic drugs

Some facts about Bruce Lee’s death are public, On the day of his death, he and the producer of his films, Raymond Chow, drove to the house of Betty Ting Pei, who was thought to be the mistress of Lee. Lee spent some hours alone with Ting Pei and used marijuana before driving to the house, and while there Lee actively acted out some scenes of an upcoming movie.

He experienced headache and dizziness around 7:30 pm, after drinking water. Ting Pei gave him an ‘Equagesic’ pill (a combination of meprobamate and aspirin which he had taken before) and Lee went to the bedroom to rest. Raymond Chow left at that time. At 9:30 pm, Ting Pei found Lee unconscious. She called Chow who went to the house and tried to wake Lee up without success.

They called a doctor, who spent another 10 min unsuccessfully doing cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Lee was sent to the nearest hospital, where he was pronounced dead. At autopsy, there were no signs of external injuries and no tongue bite. Severe cerebral oedema had resulted in brain weight of 1575 g compared with the normal 1400 g,

  • Traces of marijuana were found in the stomach.
  • Bruce Lee’s death was officially ruled to be the result of cerebral oedema caused by hypersensitivity to Equagesic.
  • Among the multiple plausible and implausible causes of death, three merit discussion.
  • Cerebral oedema caused by hypersensitivity to Equagesic,

Hypersensitivity to the components of Equagesic (aspirin and meprobamate) was identified as the official cause of death, However, Lee had taken this drug before and on the day of his death, he took it AFTER he felt unwell, already having symptoms that may be explained by cerebral oedema (i.e.

  • Headache) and cerebral oedema would not be expected to be the only necropsy finding if indeed hypersensitivity to Equagesic was the cause of death.
  • Epilepsy,
  • A seizure was considered a potential cause of the 10 May 1973 episode described below, although as it was a sole episode, a diagnosis of epilepsy was not made.

On 29 and 30 May 1973, Lee underwent a full neurologic evaluation: ‘a complete physical, a brain flow study, and an electroencephalogram’, reviewed by neurologist David Reisbord, who did not find abnormalities in his brain functions, Nevertheless, phenytoin was prescribed and Lee was on phenytoin up to the day of his death.

Martial artists are at high risk of head trauma or even microtrauma, The most important direct epilepsy-related cause of death is a sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP), which is more common in patients with chronic epilepsy, Forensic reports can include tongue bites (20–40%), cerebral oedema and pulmonary oedema,

The fact that he had no chronic epilepsy, was on antiepileptic drug therapy and had no tongue bite in necropsy argue against this diagnosis. Heatstroke, This latest hypothesis about the cause of death was proposed by Matthew Polly in his 2018 book Bruce Lee, A Life,

  1. Heatstroke refers to when body core temperature increases above 40°C, associated with hot dry skin and central nervous system abnormalities,
  2. In 2014, the Japanese Association of Acute Medicine (JAAM), published criteria for heat-related illnesses, including heatstroke.
  3. A 2016 JAAM Heat Stroke Working Group simplified heatstroke definition to consider patients exposed to high environmental temperature and at least one of the following criteria: (i) Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score of ≤14; (ii) creatinine or total bilirubin levels of ≥1.2 mg/dL; (iii) JAAM Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation (DIC) score of ≥4,

Typically, heatstroke results from strenuous exercise (exertional) or from an inability to regulate body temperature (non-exertional), in patients with risk factors such as older age, obesity, heart disease, dementia and others, Initially, heat exposure leading to hyperthermia facilitates the leakage of endotoxin from intestinal mucosa and interleukins from muscles to the systemic circulation, thereby causing a systemic inflammatory response syndrome, disruption of the blood–brain barrier and cerebral oedema,

  1. Typically, the disorder has three phases resulting in death after 24–96 h, hence sudden death is unusual,
  2. Matthew Polly hypothesized that Lee’s removal of axillary sweat glands a month prior to 10 May 1973 could increase the risk of heatstroke.
  3. However, sweat is produced through most of the skin surface and sweat output may vary from 0.002 mg/min/gland in the foot’s dorsum to 0.016 mg/min/gland in the chest,

Thus, it is unlikely that axillary sweat gland removal alone could facilitate heatstroke. Polly further suggested that the 10 May 1973 episode was probably also due to heatstroke and that both days had been uncharacteristically warm for Hong Kong. However, profuse sweating was described during the 10 May episode, despite axillary sweat gland removal, the 25°C and 32°C temperatures in both days are common in Hong Kong and there is no evidence that a previous heatstroke episode is a risk factor for a recurrent episode,

Overall, the time-course, ability to sweat and lack of extreme weather and of reports by witnesses of excessive heat or skin temperature or dry skin despite a warm environment argue against heatstroke. Any hypothesis about the cause of death should account for the necropsy finding of cerebral oedema without further evidence of central nervous system injury and for the acute time-course of the final illness.

The four main pathophysiological mechanisms of cerebral oedema are as follows. (i) Vasogenic; commonly seen in conditions with disruption of the blood–brain barrier, e.g. peritumor oedema. (ii) Cellular or cytotoxic; the consequence of brain injury, such as trauma or stroke.

Iii) Interstitial oedema resulting from the outflow of cerebrospinal fluid from the intraventricular space to interstitial areas, e.g. hydrocephalus or meningitis. (iv) Osmotic oedema; in which the cells of the brain pull water from the plasma, due to a disequilibrium in osmolarity, e.g. during hyponatraemia,

Thus, hyponatraemia stands out as a serious possibility that may account for cerebral oedema and the time-course of the illness, as it is well accepted that acute hyponatraemia itself can be lethal if not treated promptly, Could hyponatraemia-induced cerebral oedema have killed Bruce Lee? The balance of water in the body is regulated by plasma osmolarity: increased plasma osmolarity (hypertonicity) is sensed by osmoreceptors in the hypothalamus that regulate both antidiuretic hormone (ADH) release and thirst (Figure ).

  1. Serum sodium concentration (natraemia) reflects water balance.
  2. Natraemia is the main contributor to serum osmolarity and an increase in natraemia (and the associated increase in serum osmolarity) will trigger compensatory mechanisms, i.e.
  3. Thirst, leading to water ingestion and increased secretion of ADH (vasopressin), leading to decreased kidney excretion of water, i.e.

a lower volume of more concentrated urine. Conversely, excess body water will decrease natraemia and serum osmolality, leading to the disappearance of thirst and ADH (which has an extremely short half-life) and thus, increased kidney excretion of water in more dilute urine, leading to polyuria and restoring homeostasis.

Other forms of water elimination, such as breathing, faeces and sweat, are not regulated. The adaptive capacity of the kidneys is large and in patients with defects in urine concentration (e.g. genetic defects in ADH receptors or aquaporin 2) urine volumes may reach 18–20 L/day. Therefore, it is unusual to develop hyponatraemia (i.e.

water intoxication) unless the rate of water intake is clearly superior to this rate of water excretion or there are predisposing factors that limit the kidney’s ability to excrete water. However, this high volume may be surpassed by excessive free water drinking over short periods of time: urinating 20 L/day would translate into being able to handle an excess free water intake of around 0.8 L/h.

  1. Acute or hyperacute water loading during ‘dare’ activities involving ingestion of large amounts of water over a short period of time is a cause of cerebral oedema and death within a few hours, even for individuals without risk factors for hyponatraemia.
  2. Death due to hyponatraemia leading to cerebral oedema can occur within a few hours of greatly exceeding this rate of water intake, as in recent cases in which 7–8 L of water were ingested within a few hours during ‘dare activities’,

These persons are usually young and healthy. However, even if a reasonable water intake limit is not exceeded, there are factors that limit the kidneys’ ability to excrete a water load, further decreasing the safe amounts of water intake when water intake is not needed.

These factors may result in severe hyponatraemia from drinking a much lower water load. Could hyponatraemia have occurred in an apparently healthy young sportsman like Lee? Water balance homeostasis and Bruce Lee’s risk factors for hyponatraemia. Hypernatraemia means that there is a deficiency in extracellular water and the body adapts by increasing water intake through thirst and decreasing water loss in urine by secreting antidiuretic hormone (ADH), which results in more a concentrated, lower amount of urine ( A ).

If hyponatraemia develops, these mechanisms will be shut down, resulting in an increased volume of more dilute urine ( B ). Severe hyponatraemia may result from failure to timely shut down mechanisms that increase water intake and decrease water excretion once hyponatraemia has developed ( C ).

Severe hyponatraemia may trigger cerebral oedema and herniation through the foramen magnum in the occipital bone of the skull, resulting in death within hours. Green arrows indicate adaptive mechanisms. Red arrows indicate mechanisms that are inappropriately activated and not in line with physiological needs to maintain water homeostasis.

Lee had several risk factors for severe hyponatraemia that interfered with all levels of control of water balance, from thirst to ADH secretion to ADH action in the kidneys to decrease water excretion in urine. The existence of predisposing factors that interfere with water excretion by the kidneys is the most common cause of hyponatraemia and Lee did not appear to have drunk 6–8 L of free water as in some case reports of excessive water ingestion by healthy people.

So, did Lee have factors predisposing to hyponatraemia? A brief overview of publicly available information suggests that this is the case. Prior cerebral oedema episode. Lee had suffered a first episode of cerebral oedema 2 months earlier. On 10 May 1973, Lee was in Hong Kong doing a dubbing session. Polly refers to a visit to the bathroom, hash use, headache (‘He felt faint and his head hurt’), disorientation and inability to walk (‘While in the bathroom, Bruce became disoriented and collapsed facedown on the floor’, ‘Sweating star wobbled back to the dubbing room on rubbery legs.

The moment he stepped inside the scorching room he fainted again, losing consciousness. Then he vomited his lunch of spaghetti and his body began convulsing’ (Table ). They took him to Baptist Hospital where cerebral oedema was diagnosed and treated with mannitol.

Lee recovered, and on 25 May 1973, he was examined in the United States by Dr. Harold L. Karpman. In his book Unsettled Matters, Tom Bleecker states that during the inquest on Lee’s death, ‘ Dr Karpman said that blood urea nitrogen (BUN) at Baptist Hospital had been 92 mg/dL, but was normal on May 25 when Karpman examined Lee’,

Thus, Lee appeared to have had acute kidney injury (AKI) and kidney dysfunction is a risk factor for hyponatraemia. A neurologist mentioned that Lee might have an idiopathic seizure disorder and prescribed phenytoin, but epilepsy was not diagnosed as this was an isolated episode.

  • Lee’s wife, Linda, stated: ‘Dr Reisbord told me that at no time had Bruce suffered from epilepsy’,
  • Lee’s symptoms as compared with a prior report of a patient dying from hyperacute hyponatraemia-induced cerebral oedema.
  • Jennifer Strange participated in a radio show contest called ‘Hold your wee for a wii’ and drank 6–7 L of water in under 3 h before dying from severe hyponatraemia,

Other examples can be found in a recent review,

Lee Jennifer Strange
Headache Headache
‘Feel faint’ ‘Feel lightheaded’
Difficulty standing/walking. ‘wobbled back to the dubbing room on rubbery legs’ Difficulty standing/walking; ‘drink more if you guys pick me up’
Vomited Other contestants vomited
Died within hours Died within hours

Excess water intake. Lee’s wife Linda referred to a fluid-based diet (‘carrot and apple juice’). On the evening that Lee died, Polly repeatedly refers to water intake during the day, including just before Lee became noticeably ill. ‘I think we had some water that probably made him a little tired and thirsty.

  • After a few sips he seemed to be a little dizzy Immediately after feeling faint, Bruce complained of a headache’,
  • The excess fluid intake appears to have become a habit for Lee.
  • We suggest that the fact that water intake was repeatedly noticed when it is such a commonplace activity that might have been forgotten given the exceptional circumstances means that it was indeed noticeably higher than the intake of other persons present on the day that Lee died.

Cannabis. The use of multiple drugs use by Lee has been reported by Bleecker and multiple sources comment on his frequent uses of hash or marijuana, including on his final day. In July 2021, the English newspaper The Times, published a piece of a newly found letter collection written by Bruce Lee: ‘Stoned as hell, but am working on the up-coming character, some coke would help in the formation of what I want to create’,

  • On the evening that Lee died, Polly repeatedly refers to cannabis use throughout the day.
  • Cannabis causes thirst and may have been driving water intake despite the putative presence of hyponatraemia that we hypothesize.
  • Hyponatraemia has also been linked to cocaine, although reports are uncommon,
  • However, there is no publicly available evidence of cocaine use on the day of his death.

Alcohol. Alcohol use has been linked to an increased risk of hyponatraemia. There are reports of increased alcohol intake in the last months of Lee’s life: ‘would drink ten to twenty ceramic bottles of sake in an evening.’ ‘Near the end,’ Lowe added, ‘Bruce was often very tired and dizzy’ ; his friends say he was drinking alcohol more frequently,

Low dietary solute intake, The association of excess alcohol intake with hyponatraemia is in part related to a low dietary solute intake. There is evidence that indeed in his last months, Lee’s solute intake was low while water intake was high. An abnormal dietary pattern had been observed by physicians.

Bleecker states that ‘Dr Au’s advised Bruce to begin eating a balanced and proper diet’ and ‘According to Linda, during her husband’s final months, he had stopped eating solid food and was existing miserably on carrot and apple juice’, This dietary pattern of mostly fluid may have explained the weight loss that appears to have accelerated between May and July 1973.

Disorders in which ADH levels are not elevated
  Polydipsia (e.g. marijuana)
  Low dietary solute intake (beer drinker’s potomania, tea and toast diet)
Disorders with impaired urine dilution but normal suppression of ADH
  Renal impairment
  Diuretic -induced hyponatraemia
Disorders with impaired urine dilution due to unsuppressed ADH secretion
 Reduced effective arterial blood volume
 True volume depletion (hypovolemic hyponatraemia)
 Heart failure and cirrhosis (hypervolemic hyponatraemia)
  Addison’s disease
SIADH (euvolemic hyponatraemia)
 CNS disturbances
  Drugs: anti-epileptic drugs, opiates, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents
 Pulmonary disease
  Hormonal deficiency: secondary adrenal insufficiency ( opiates ), hypothyroidism
 Hormone administration (vasopressin, desmopressin, oxytocin)
 Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome
Disorders with impaired urine dilution due to abnormal V2 receptor (nephrogenic SIADH)
Abnormally low osmostat
 Acquired reset osmostat of chronic illness
 Genetic reset osmostat
 Reset osmostat of pregnancy
Exercise-induced hyponatraemia
Cerebral salt wasting

Bleecker states that Lee complained to Dr. Harold L. Karpman in May 1973 of a poor appetite and that he had lost 20 pounds over a 2-year period. He further adds: ‘In Bruce’s particular case, it is important to realize that a loss of twenty pounds of body weight over a two-year period is highly significant.

  1. Besides his overuse of diuretics, which significantly reduced his body’s percentage of water, Bruce had an extremely low percentage of body fat.
  2. The result was that under these conditions a loss of over 14% of his body’s muscular mass was noticeable in Bruce and made him appear emaciated’ And ‘From the day of his near-fatal collapse on May 10 to the day he died nearly ten weeks later, Bruce underwent an inexplicable and startling weight loss’,

Polly indicates, referring to the May event: ‘He had lost 15% of his total body weight in the previous two months, and he had minimal body fat to start’; ‘But to me, he seemed awfully run down. In all the years I knew him, I never saw him in such an emaciated condition before.’ ‘Yeah, I’ve lost a lot of weight from working day and night,’ Bruce explained ‘I even forget to eat’,

  • Prescription drugs,
  • Prescription drugs may be the primary cause of severe hyponatraemia,
  • However, the molecular mechanisms of the contribution of some drugs to hyponatraemia have not been completely clarified or may involve several mechanisms.
  • Bleecker writes that during the inquest, ‘he quickly became bored with the complex scientific analysis of the wide assortment of prescription drugs Bruce had been taking’,

This points to the use of other prescription drugs that may have had an impact over predisposition to hyponatraemia. These included diuretics, phenytoin and painkillers (e.g. opioids and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, NSAIDs). Lee was taking phenytoin and Doloxene (dextropropoxyphene, an analgesic in the opioid category, apparently in combination with aspirin),

  • Diuretics.
  • Diuretic use may have contributed to both AKI and hyponatraemia.
  • Bleecker states that ‘Bruce was a frequent user of diuretics.
  • Although this greatly reduced the excessive water content in his muscles, and thus gave him the desired ‘ripped’ appearance, it was a dangerous practice that frequently placed him in a life-threatening state of dehydration’,

While we have no clear idea of what diuretics were involved, thiazides are known to cause hyponatraemia, while loop diuretics increase free water clearance in persons with normal kidney function. However, even loop diuretics favour hyponatraemia primarily due to hypovolaemia-induced release of antidiuretic hormone (ADH), especially if water intake is high and distal delivery is very low, as may occur during diuretic-induced kidney dysfunction,

  • Opioids, We found no report on dextropropoxyphene and hyponatraemia, but other opioids, such as tramadol may cause hyponatraemia,
  • Opioids may promote ADH secretion but may also favour hyponatraemia when ADH is absent,
  • Additionally, they may suppress adrenocorticotropic hormone, favouring secondary adrenal insufficiency, another cause of hyponatraemia,

Opioids are mostly associated with hyponatraemia in combination with other drugs predisposing to hyponatraemia, NSAIDs, NSAIDs decrease the inhibitory effect of prostaglandins on the activity of ADH, favouring hyponatraemia under conditions of non-suppressible ADH such as the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH) or in the presence of volume depletion (as may be expected in diuretic users), and increase the risk of hyponatraemia in patients on diuretics,

  1. However, aspirin is among the NSAIDs with a lower impact on natraemia.
  2. Antiepileptic drugs.
  3. Diverse antiepileptic drugs can predispose to hyponatraemia.
  4. For newly initiated antiepileptic drugs, adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence interval) for hospitalization due to hyponatraemia, compared with controls, have been reported to be 9.63 (6.18–15.33) for carbamazepine and 4.83 (1.14–25.76) for phenytoin,

The risk is lower for chronic users. Anabolic steroids and adrenal insufficiency, According to Bleecker, Lee had been on and off anabolic steroids that he combined with diuretics to prevent steroid-induced fluid retention, While off steroids, Bleecker suggested that he may have developed adrenal insufficiency.

  • It is unclear what steroids he might have used and whether they may have suppressed adrenal function leading to adrenal insufficiency while off them, as performance-enhancing steroids usually have androgenic properties.
  • However, chronic administration of opiates has the potential to cause secondary adrenal insufficiency while phenytoin accelerates the metabolism of cortisol and the combination of both may exacerbate any underlying predisposition to adrenal insufficiency.

As indicated above, adrenal insufficiency is a further cause of hyponatraemia. Kidney dysfunction, Lee appeared to have had an episode of AKI (i.e. an acute decrease in the kidney function of glomerular filtration) at the time of the first cerebral oedema episode that later recovered.

  1. This is unusual for an apparently healthy person, but diuretics may decrease kidney function through hypovolemia (i.e.
  2. Loss of sodium in the urine).
  3. AKI may interfere with several kidney functions, including water excretion.
  4. Exercise,
  5. Exercise-associated hyponatraemia is defined as hyponatraemia occurring during or up to 24 h after prolonged physical activity,

It has been mainly observed in endurance athletes in long events such as marathons. It is thought to depend on excess water intake when ADH is suboptimally suppressed because of intense exercise itself, nausea and/or vomiting, hypoglycaemia, pain, or release of muscle-derived interleukin-6 and may be exacerbated by NSAIDs,

  1. High chronic fluid intake.
  2. Factors that acutely increase thirst and water intake: marijuana, plus evidence that he was repeatedly drinking water on the day of his death.
  3. Factors that decrease the ability of the kidney to excrete a water load because they either increase ADH secretion or impair the collecting tubular response to ADH: prescription drugs (diuretics, NSAIDs, opioids, antiepileptic drugs), alcohol, chronic low solute intake, potentially an acute decrease in glomerular filtration rate such as that observed in May 1973, and exercise.

In summary, Lee had multiple risk factors predisposing to hyponatraemia resulting from interference with water homeostasis mechanisms that regulate both water intake and water excretion (Table, Figure ), a clinical presentation consistent with hyponatraemia and a necropsy finding of cerebral oedema which is the cause of death in severe hyponatraemia.

This predisposition may have caused pre-existing asymptomatic hyponatraemia, which is associated with a high risk for the development of worsening hyponatraemia with altered mental status, Pre-existing hyponatraemia was found in over 70% of all patients admitted with symptomatic hyponatraemia and represented the most common risk factor identified.

Additionally, in patients with a baseline risk of hyponatraemia due to other factors, an increase in the number of prescription drugs that predispose to hyponatraemia synergistically increases the risk of hyponatraemia (Figure ), Thus, even if some of the risk factors identified in the present report were not actually present or had a mild influence by themselves, the presence of multiple risk factors may explain the sequence of events that led to Lee’s demise.

  1. In conclusion, we hypothesize that Bruce Lee died from a specific form of kidney dysfunction: the inability to excrete enough water to maintain water homeostasis, which is mainly a tubular function.
  2. This may lead to hyponatraemia, cerebral oedema and death within hours if excess water intake is not matched by water excretion in urine, which is in line with the timeline of Lee’s demise.

Given that hyponatraemia is frequent, as is found in up to 40% of hospitalized persons and may cause death due to excessive water ingestion even in young healthy persons, there is a need for a wider dissemination of the concept that excessive water intake can kill.

The fact that we are 60% water does not protect us from the potentially lethal consequences of drinking water at a faster rate than our kidneys can excrete excess water. Ironically, Lee made famous the quote ‘Be water my friend’, but excess water appears to have ultimately killed him. Priscila Villalvazo, Department of Nephrology and Hypertension, IIS-Fundacion Jimenez Diaz UAM, Madrid, Spain.

Raul Fernandez-Prado, Department of Nephrology and Hypertension, IIS-Fundacion Jimenez Diaz UAM, Madrid, Spain. RICORS2040; Madrid, Spain. Departamento de Medicina, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Madrid, Spain. Maria Dolores Sánchez Niño, Department of Nephrology and Hypertension, IIS-Fundacion Jimenez Diaz UAM, Madrid, Spain.

RICORS2040; Madrid, Spain. Departamento de Farmacología, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Madrid, Spain. Sol Carriazo, Department of Nephrology and Hypertension, IIS-Fundacion Jimenez Diaz UAM, Madrid, Spain. RICORS2040; Madrid, Spain. Departamento de Medicina, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Madrid, Spain.

Beatriz Fernández-Fernández, Department of Nephrology and Hypertension, IIS-Fundacion Jimenez Diaz UAM, Madrid, Spain. RICORS2040; Madrid, Spain. Departamento de Medicina, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Madrid, Spain. Alberto Ortiz, Department of Nephrology and Hypertension, IIS-Fundacion Jimenez Diaz UAM, Madrid, Spain.

RICORS2040; Madrid, Spain. Departamento de Medicina, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Madrid, Spain. Maria Vanessa Perez-Gomez, Department of Nephrology and Hypertension, IIS-Fundacion Jimenez Diaz UAM, Madrid, Spain. RICORS2040; Madrid, Spain. Departamento de Medicina, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Madrid, Spain.A.O.

has received grants from Sanofi and consultancy or speaker fees or travel support from Advicciene, Astellas, AstraZeneca, Amicus, Amgen, Fresenius Medical Care, GSK, Bayer, Sanofi-Genzyme, Menarini, Kyowa Kirin, Alexion, Idorsia, Chiesi, Otsuka, Novo-Nordisk and Vifor Fresenius Medical Care Renal Pharma, and is Director of the Catedra Mundipharma-UAM of diabetic kidney disease and the Catedra AstraZeneca-UAM of chronic kidney disease and electrolytes.A.O.

Is the Editor-in-Chief of CKJ, The authors are designing a massive online open course (MOOC) on kidney disease in the context of the Catedra AstraZeneca-UAM of chronic kidney disease and electrolytes. This article is based on publicly available information that we could not verify. Authors are supported by the Instituto de Salud Carlos III (ISCIII) RICORS program to RICORS2040 (RD21/0005/0001), FEDER funds and the Catedra AstraZeneca-UAM of chronic kidney disease and electrolytes.A.O.

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What is a sudden unexpected death?

Purpose of review – Death is a certainty in life. Yet, the timing of death is often uncertain. When death occurs suddenly and earlier than anticipated, it is considered an unexpected death. In this article, we shall discuss when is a death expected and unexpected, and review the frequency, impact, causes and approach to unexpected death in the palliative care setting.

What happened to Queen Victoria at her funeral?

The next day Queen Victoria was laid to rest next to her beloved Albert at the Royal Mausoleum. Shockingly, a mentally ill soldier who had sneaked onto the grounds somehow made his way into the service and had to be escorted away by Ponsonby. However, the scene turned poignant after the simple service was over.

How many MMA deaths are there?

Has anyone died in the UFC? – How Did Victoria Lee Die Credit: Gary A. Vasquez-USA TODAY Sports Luckily for the MMA world leader, there have not been any deaths in the Octagon. That doesn’t mean there haven’t been many severe injuries incurred during UFC fights. In 2021 alone, there were two nasty instances where former UFC champions Chris Weidman and Conor McGregor both broke their legs in gruesome fashion during matchups. How Did Victoria Lee Die However, with being the richest and most prosperous MMA promotion in history, the UFC does work closely with state athletic commissions to make the conditions for fights as safe as possible, and the medical screenings before and after bouts as thorough as can be to keep their athletes healthy and active.

Who passed away in MMA?

Shalie Lipp dies aged 21: MMA fighter passes away weeks before big fight M MA (Mixed Martial Arts) fighter Shalie Lipp lost her life in a car accident just a few weeks before the biggest fight of her career. The 21-year-old fighter, who was scheduled to face Natalie Gage on May 20 at Ignite No Mercy 11 at the Kent Freeman Arena in Detroit Lakes, was involved in a traffic accident on Interstate 94 in Minnesota when the car she was in collided with another vehicle. How Did Victoria Lee Die Shalie Lipp, luchadora de MMA de 21 años, muere en un accidente de tráfico Instagram (@shalielipp) “My heart is absolutely broken,” her coach, Eric Sweeney, wrote on social media. “You were such a wonderful human, full of promise and drive. One of the few people I’ve ever met that was truly reaching for greatness.

“And I will never forget you. It is beyond my mind’s capacity today to think that I won’t see you this week,or ever again. We were just cracking the code. “Being your friend will change me forever. It already has. Thank you for all of the moments. All of our discussions, both personal and professional.

The laughs, the tears, and every emotion in between. I will remember all of them. I am grateful for all of them.” The young Colorado fighter, who had an amateur record of three wins and two losses, was in Thailand preparing for her highly anticipated bout.

What age did Conor McGregor start doing MMA?

Amateur mixed martial arts career – On 17 February 2007, at the age of 18, McGregor made his mixed martial arts debut in an amateur fight against Kieran Campbell for the Irish Ring of Truth promotion in Dublin. He won via technical knockout (TKO) in the first round.

Did Lee ever lose a battle?

General Robert E. Lee
Lee in March 1864
Birth name Robert Edward Lee
  • Uncle Robert
  • Marse Robert
  • King of Spades
  • Marble Man
  • Granny Lee (by Union)
Born January 19, 1807 Stratford Hall, Westmoreland County, Virginia, U.S.
Died October 12, 1870 (aged 63) Lexington, Virginia, U.S.
Buried University Chapel at Washington and Lee University, Lexington, Virginia, U.S.
Allegiance United States of America Confederate States of America Commonwealth of Virginia
Service/ branch United States Army Confederate States Army
Years of service
  • 1829–1861 (U.S.)
  • 1861–1865 (C.S.)
Rank Colonel (U.S.) General (C.S.)
Commands held
  • General in Chief of the Armies of the Confederate States
  • U.S. Military Academy
  • Army of Northern Virginia
  • Mexican–American War
  • John Brown’s raid
  • American Civil War
Alma mater United States Military Academy
Spouse(s) Mary Anna Randolph Custis ​ ​ ( m.1831) ​
  • George
  • Mary
  • William
  • Robert Jr.
  • Anne
  • Eleanor
  • Mildred
  • Henry Lee III (father)
  • Anne Hill Carter Lee (mother)
General in Chief of the Armies of the Confederate States
In office February 6, 1865 – April 12, 1865
Preceded by Position established
Succeeded by Position abolished
1st President of Washington and Lee University
In office 1865–1870
Preceded by George Junkin (Washington College)
Succeeded by Custis Lee
Superintendent of the United States Military Academy
In office 1852–1855
Preceded by Henry Brewerton
Succeeded by John G. Barnard

Robert Edward Lee (January 19, 1807 – October 12, 1870) was a Confederate general during the American Civil War, towards the end of which he was appointed the overall commander of the Confederate States Army, He led the Army of Northern Virginia —the Confederacy’s most powerful army—from 1862 until its surrender in 1865, earning a reputation as a skilled tactician.

A son of Revolutionary War officer Henry “Light Horse Harry” Lee III, Lee was a top graduate of the United States Military Academy and an exceptional officer and military engineer in the United States Army for 32 years. He served across the United States, distinguished himself extensively during the Mexican–American War, and was Superintendent of the United States Military Academy,

He married Mary Anna Custis Lee, great-granddaughter of George Washington ‘s wife Martha, While he opposed slavery from a philosophical perspective, he supported its legality and held hundreds of slaves. When Virginia declared secession from the Union in 1861, Lee chose to follow his home state, despite his desire for the country to remain intact and an offer of a senior Union command.

During the first year of the Civil War, he served in minor combat operations and as a senior military adviser to Confederate President Jefferson Davis, Lee took command of the Army of Northern Virginia in June 1862 during the Peninsula Campaign following the wounding of Joseph E. Johnston, He succeeded in driving the Union Army of the Potomac under George B.

McClellan away from the Confederate capital of Richmond during the Seven Days Battles, although he was unable to destroy McClellan’s army. Lee then overcame Union forces under John Pope at the Second Battle of Bull Run in August. His invasion of Maryland that September ended with the inconclusive Battle of Antietam, after which he retreated to Virginia.

Lee won two of his most decisive victories at Fredericksburg and Chancellorsville before launching a second invasion of the North in the summer of 1863, where he was decisively defeated at the Battle of Gettysburg by the Army of the Potomac under George Meade, He led his army in the minor and inconclusive Bristoe Campaign that fall before General Ulysses S.

Grant took command of Union armies in the spring of 1864. Grant engaged Lee’s army in bloody but inconclusive battles at the Wilderness and Spotsylvania before the lengthy Siege of Petersburg, which was followed in April 1865 by the capture of Richmond and the destruction of most of Lee’s army, which he finally surrendered to Grant at Appomattox Court House,

  • In 1865, Lee became president of Washington College (now Washington and Lee University ) in Lexington, Virginia ; in that position, he supported reconciliation between North and South.
  • Lee accepted the extinction of slavery provided for by the Thirteenth Amendment, but opposed racial equality for African Americans,

After his death in 1870, Lee became a cultural icon in the South and is largely hailed as one of the Civil War’s greatest generals. As commander of the Army of Northern Virginia, he fought most of his battles against armies of significantly larger size, and managed to win many of them.

  • Lee built up a collection of talented subordinates, most notably James Longstreet, Stonewall Jackson, and J.E.B.
  • Stuart, who along with Lee were critical to the Confederacy’s battlefield success.
  • In spite of his success, his two major strategic offensives into Union territory both ended in failure.

Lee’s aggressive and risky tactics, especially at Gettysburg, which resulted in high casualties at a time when the Confederacy had a shortage of manpower, have come under criticism.

Is Victoria Lee still fighting?

Last woman to fight Victoria Lee, ONE’s Victoria Souza heartbroken with death of 18-year-old prospect MMA prospect Victoria Lee died at age 18 in December 2022, and the last woman to face her inside the ONE Championship cage was shocked to hear the news.

Victoria Souza, who returns to the ONE ring Saturday against Linda Darrow in Thailand, said on this week’s Trocação Franca podcast she was “very sad” when she saw on Jan.7, nearly 10 days after she had passed away. “I was very sad, especially for her family,” Souza said. “I have a little sister who’s 20 and she’s like a little baby to me.

I keep thinking how her family must have felt, to lose a kid like that.” Lee beat Souza via second-round TKO in September 2021 to improve to 3-0 in a span of seven months as a professional MMA fighter, and the Brazilian expected to meet her a second time later in their careers.

  • I thought I would do more fights at ONE and we would have the opportunity to rematch in the future, but unfortunately that won’t be possible,” Souza said.
  • She was so talented and had a brilliant future.
  • To lose a 18-year-old girl like that must have crushed her entire family.
  • I couldn’t believe it.” Angela Lee and her brother, both champions at ONE, have not disclosed the cause of death.

“I wish God has welcomed her,” Souza said. “There are no words to comfort the family. I lost an aunt last month and it’s so sad to lose a member of the family like that. There are no words to be said.” Souza was making her ONE debut at the time after winning five in a row in the Brazilian circuit, and returns to Asia five months after scoring a 82-second stoppage in her native country.

I’m super excited and prepared for this fight,” Souza said. “My game was very limited when I fought at ONE, I didn’t let things go. It was my first time fighting for an international promotion, and I more free now. I’ll let things go and be more aggressive.” Souza said she was “more cautious” in her ONE debut because “they score the fight entirely instead of round by round, so I didn’t take many chances.” Used to the ruleset now, “Vick” plans on being more aggressive Saturday.

“I’m feeling more confident now,” Souza said. “I’ve watched all her fights and she has the ability to finish the fight quickly, but so do I. We both can finish the fight early, but my game is more complete than hers. She’s never fought a girl like me.” : Last woman to fight Victoria Lee, ONE’s Victoria Souza heartbroken with death of 18-year-old prospect

How many battles did Bruce Lee lose?

Despite Bruce Lee’s legendary reputation, there have long been rumors about Lee losing two of his fights. Here are the stories behind them. How Did Victoria Lee Die Despite Bruce Lee’s skills as a fighter, rumors have circulated since the 1960s about the martial arts legend losing two of his fights. Given the remarkable speed and skills he’s displayed in his films, it’s easy to see Lee as someone who won all of his fights.

It’s partially for this reason that Quentin Tarantino’s decision to have Lee lose to Brad Pitt’s character in Once Upon a Time in Hollywood courted so much controversy. Through roles in just five kung fu movies, Lee developed a reputation as the greatest martial arts movie actor of all time. And not only was Lee respected for his onscreen image but he was viewed as a martial artist of seemingly unsurpassed skill in real life as well.

Over the years, there have been numerous discussions about how Lee would stack up against professional fighters. But since Lee never competed at this level, this will remain open to speculation. However, several Hollywood tales and public demonstrations have shed light on his capabilities.

As for the fights he’s been involved in, most of these stories end with Bruce Lee winning. Interestingly, there have been two fights that Bruce Lee was rumored to have lost, which were against Hollywood stuntman Gene LeBell and Chinese martial artist Wong Jack Man. It’s worth noting that while there’s evidence to show that both fights did indeed happen, there’s not enough to prove outright that Lee lost either one.

It would seem, based on the accounts of what took place, one wasn’t a true fight (nor was it under fair conditions), and in the case of the other, there are too many conflicting stories to declare a real winner. How Did Victoria Lee Die The aforementioned incident with Gene LeBell happened on the set of The Green Hornet, Supposedly, the show’s stunt performers weren’t happy with Lee’s rough approach to Green Hornet’s fight scenes so they convinced LeBell to go up against him. Instead of starting an actual fight with the actor, LeBell used his size and strength to force Lee into a headlock before proceeding to carry him around the set on his back.

Unable to get free, Lee shouted at him angrily until he was finally put down. Since this was the extent of the conflict, it may not be fair to call this a true loss for Lee, especially since LeBell was able to grab him by catching him by surprise. As for the fight with Wong Jack Man, it was of a much more serious nature and can actually be classified as a martial arts showdown.

According to Bruce Lee’s wife, Linda Lee Cadwell, Wong Jack Man fought Bruce Lee to get him to stop teaching Chinese martial arts to Americans. Wong stated that the fight was called off after 20 minutes because Lee was too exhausted to go on. If Wong’s story is accurate, that could very well be the closest Lee ever came to losing, but that claim has never been proven.

Who trained Bruce Lee?

But have you ever heard of Ip Man, the man who taught Lee how to fight? In the first half of the 20th century, in in the village of Foshan in Guangdong Province, Southern China, there lived a man known as Master Ip, or Ip Man.

How high could Bruce Lee jump?

Bruce lee real footage of him jumping 8 feet |TikTok Search.

How big was Bruce Lee?

Bruce Lee was arguably the greatest martial artist of all time. At 5 foot 6 inches and weighing around 145 lbs (65.9 kg) in his prime, Bruce’s legacy was that no matter how tall, big or strong an individual is, the technical martial artist is always at a greater advantage.

  • Born in the year of the dragon, which symbolised strength and fortune, he was destined for exactly that.
  • Originally learning Wing Chun and Boxing, Bruce was always adapting his martial arts knowledge, believing in a philosophy that incorporated successful techniques from a variety of sources.
  • This passion for martial arts led to the introduction of child acting at a young age by his father.

As a result of his gifted martial arts skills his successful film career led to a surge in Chinese martial arts being adopted by westerners. With such classics as Enter the Dragon, The Game of Death, The Way of the Dragon among many more. As a result of Bruce’s fight with Wong Jack Man, where he believed that the fight had lasted too long and that he had failed to live up to his potential using his Wing Chun techniques, he created Jeet Kune Do in 1967 which translated to ‘The Way of the Intercepting First’,

His opinion was that traditional martial arts techniques were too rigid and formalistic to be practical in scenarios of chaotic street fighting and decided to develop a system which focused on “practicality, flexibility, speed, and efficiency”, With truly a breathtaking career which was brought to a premature end, Bruce left behind him a legacy which left a lasting impression on a global generation.

Having instructed World Karate Champions including Chuck Norris, Joe Lewis, and Mike Stone, during their training with Bruce they won every karate championship in the United States. Here are 10 of Bruce Lee’s greatest moments, This article is based on opinion: – the author is not a qualified doctor or anyone who can dispense medical advice.

Does a sudden death hurt?

Is sudden cardiac death painful? – Some people have chest pain during the initial seconds of sudden cardiac arrest. However, once you lose consciousness, you don’t feel pain.

What causes death in sleep?

Sudden nocturnal death, while relatively uncommon, can occur as a result of a variety of factors, including stroke, seizure, sedative overdose, and, most frequently, sudden cardiac arrest, physicians say. Doctors say the best way to reduce risks is to take charge of your own health : Learn your family medical history, ask questions during general health screenings and arm yourself with information about your body.

Does a person know when they are dying suddenly?

They Know They’re Dying – Dying is a natural process that the body has to work at. Just as a woman in labor knows a baby is coming, a dying person may instinctively know death is near. Even if your loved one doesn’t discuss their death, they most likely know it is coming.

In some cases, the person comes from a culture or a family in which death is simply not discussed. Furthermore, your loved one may sense that others feel uncomfortable recognizing the dying process so they don’t want to bring it up. Death can then become the elephant in the room. Everyone knows it’s there but no one will acknowledge it.

Family discussions may be awkward and superficial and never reach an intimate level. In this case, the important work of mending and completing relationships may not happen.

What were the last words of Queen Victoria?

Queen Victoria’s one-word tribute to true love Albert on deathbed reigned as monarch of Great Britain, India and Ireland from 1837. Her death, on January 22, 1901, ended the 63-year period that claimed her name and the longest rule of a British Sovereign until the reign of the late Queen Elizabeth II.

Victoria died at Osborne House on the Isle of Wight; she was surrounded by her children and grandchildren, including the future King Edward VII and Kaiser Wilhelm II of Germany. In keeping with a custom she had adopted during her widowhood, Victoria spent the Christmas of 1900 at her Isle of Wight residence, which she and her husband had bought 55 years earlier.

There, the couple were able to forge a private life away from the royal court. In 1861, following Albert’s death, Victoria found solace at the home they’d created together. Known as the ‘Widow at Windsor’, Victoria spent a large part of her life in mourning.

  • She was, rarely stepped foot in London and wore black for the remainder of her life.
  • While she did undertake official government duties, she chose to spend most of her time in seclusion, travelling between her royal residences — Windsor Castle, Osborne House and Balmoral Castle, the private estate in Scotland she and Albert had bought in 1847.

How Did Victoria Lee Die Queen Victoria’s last words honoured her late husband, Prince Albert (Image: Getty Images) How Did Victoria Lee Die Albert died in 1961 and Victoria lived the rest of her life in mourning (Image: Getty) How Did Victoria Lee Die Victoria celebrated her Diamond Jubilee in 1897 (Image: Getty) How Did Victoria Lee Die Thousands lined the streets to mark the monarch’s monumental milestone (Image: Getty) The Queen died of a cerebral haemorrhage — a type of stroke — but she had been growing weaker for several years prior. Her eyesight had become clouded by cataracts and she had to use a wheelchair due to rheumatism in her legs.

  • On her deathbed, the monarch paid tribute to her husband of 21 years.
  • Her final word was said to be “Bertie”, understood to be in reference to Prince Albert who died 40 years earlier.
  • She also whispered that Turi, her Pomeranian dog, be brought to her.
  • At age 81, Victoria died peacefully in her sleep.
  • The Queen had written instructions for her funeral four years before her death.

Her strict plan for the service and ceremony set a precedent for state funerals to this day.

  1. Despite spending her life after Albert’s death dressed in black, the typical colour of mourning, the Queen had dictated her funeral be white.
  2. DON’T MISS:

How Did Victoria Lee Die Victoria and Albert created a home at Osborne House (Image: Getty)

  • As the daughter of a soldier and head of the Army, she wanted the procession and funeral to be full military service, meaning her coffin would be carried by gun carriage, the procession would consist of Navy and Army officers and there would be no public lying-in-state.
  • On January 25, her sons Edward and Arthur, and grandson Wilhelm helped lift her body, dressed in a white gown and her wedding veil, into the coffin.
  • She requested that family mementoes be placed alongside her, such as Albert’s dressing gown and a plaster cast of his hand.

Victoria’s funeral began on February 2. As she died on the Isle of Wight,, How Did Victoria Lee Die Queen Victoria’s funeral procession at Windsor Castle (Image: Getty) From there, it was taken in procession to Paddington Station, allowing crowds of spectators to get a last glimpse of the Queen. A sense of loss had enthralled the country, and as author and historian John Wolffe noted in his book Great Deaths, reactions were “immediate and tangible” with a “sombre mood and suspension of normal activity”.

  • The coffin travelled by train to Windsor, where it was placed in St George’s Chapel at the castle.
  • On the evening of February 4, it was carried to, which she had built for Albert upon his death.
  • Above the building’s doors, Victoria had inscribed: “Vale desideratissime.
  • Farewell most beloved.
  • Here at length, I shall rest with thee, with thee in Christ I shall rise again.” Victoria was the first monarch to be buried outside of Westminster Abbey and St George’s Chapel since George I, 174 years earlier.

: Queen Victoria’s one-word tribute to true love Albert on deathbed

How old was Elizabeth 1 when she died?

Elizabeth I | Hampton Court Palace | Historic Royal Palaces Was Elizabeth’s 44-year reign really a ‘golden era’ of English history? Was Elizabeth’s 44-year reign really a ‘golden era’ of English history? Elizabeth I became queen in 1558 at a time of political crisis.

  1. Since the death of her father, Henry VIII, in 1547, the reigns of Elizabeth’s brother Edward VI (1547-53) and sister Mary I (1553-58) had seen England beset by religious conflict and impoverished by war.
  2. Elizabeth, the daughter of, the condemned traitor-queen, had even been imprisoned in the Tower of London, and held under house arrest at, on suspicion of plotting against Mary: this was a Tudor dynasty at war with itself.

What would happen next? Against the odds, Elizabeth’s personal bravery and charisma, mixed with a natural inclination to compromise rather than dictate, helped stabilise the country. The ‘Virgin Queen’ never married, but instead pledged her body to England itself.

In 1588, when Spain threatened to invade, she made one of the most famous speeches in royal history to inspire her troops. God listened, and the Spanish Armada was defeated. Elizabeth became a legend in her own lifetime, praised by poets and immortalised by artists as ‘Gloriana’, an immortal goddess sworn to protect a nation thriving in a cultural renaissance, the age of Shakespeare.

But how much of this can possibly be true? Was Elizabeth’s 44-year reign really a ‘golden era’ of English history? Queen Elizabeth I, ‘The Rainbow Portrait’ (detail), by Isaac Oliver, c1600. Reproduced by permission of the Marquess of Salisbury, Hatfield House Elizabeth I was the last monarch of the Tudor dynasty, which ruled England between 1485 and 1603. The future Queen Elizabeth I was born at Greenwich Palace on 7 September 1533. Her arrival was a disappointment for her father: craved a son and heir to ensure the future of the Tudor dynasty.

  • The celebrations at court were muted, ‘very cold and disagreeable and there has been no thought of having the bonfires and rejoicings usual in such cases’, according to the Imperial Ambassador Eustace Chapuys.
  • Henry’s enemies believed that the birth of a daughter was divine punishment for the King’s controversial divorce from his first wife,
  • Henry VIII, by Hans Holbein the Younger, c1537, © Museo Nacional Thyssen-Bornemisza, Madrid.

The official letters sent out to announce Elizabeth’s birth were corrected at the last minute, to change the word ‘Prince’ into ‘Princess’, © The British Library Board, Harley 283 Back at Hatfield, and despite her illegitimacy, the King appointed tutors to manage his daughter’s education.

  • Elizabeth excelled, learning at least five languages (French, Italian, Spanish, Latin and Flemish) under the expert guidance of humanist scholars like Roger Ascham and John Cheke.
  • Ascham later reported in 1548 that, ‘Her mind is no womanly weakness and her perseverance is equal to that of a man’ while, ‘She delights as much in music as she is skilful in it.’ Later in her life, Elizabeth learnt Scottish, Irish and even Cornish.

This important dynastic portrait of Henry VIII and his family shows the king flanked by his third wife, Jane Seymour and Prince Edward, later Edward VI. On the left is Princess Mary, later Mary I, the king’s daughter by his first wife, Katherine of Aragon, and on the right Princess Elizabeth, later Elizabeth I, his daughter by his second wife, Anne Boleyn. Katherine Parr seems to have exerted a strong and positive influence over Elizabeth at this critical period of her life. The Queen encouraged Elizabeth’s learning and taught her about Protestant reform. She also read classical texts, including Cicero, and discovered the power of oratory.

  1. Elizabeth even translated Katherine’s essay, ‘Prayers and Meditations’ – into Latin, Italian and French – and presented it to her father.
  2. Even after Henry VIII’s death in 1547, this happy and fertile period of Elizabeth’s life continued, welcomed into Katherine’s home at Sudeley Castle, with her new husband Thomas Seymour, uncle to the new King, Elizabeth’s brother,,

Katherine Parr, by an unknown artist in the late 16th century, probably copied from a lost original portrait. © National Portrait Gallery, London Thomas Seymour, Lord High Admiral, proved a poor choice of guardian for Elizabeth. Within days of joining his wife, Katherine Parr at Sudeley Castle, Elizabeth began to receive early-morning visits from the 38-year-old Seymour, who would appear in her room dressed in his nightclothes.

Elizabeth was protected by her governess, Kat Ashley, who warned him off. Thomas Seymour’s harassment of the 14-year-old Elizabeth became insidiously more dangerous. Katherine reportedly found Seymour alone in a room with Elizabeth, his arms around the princess. In the spring of 1548, Elizabeth was sent away.

But later that year, Katherine died in childbirth, and Seymour renewed his attentions. He perhaps saw Elizabeth as a means of acquiring power, but in January 1549 he was arrested for conspiring to kidnap the King, and his lecherous behaviour with Elizabeth was unmasked.

Seymour was beheaded for treason two months after his arrest. Edward, suspicious of his sister’s involvement, sought answers. Elizabeth was less than forthcoming, admitting only that she knew of Seymour’s ambition, but that she had never encouraged him. Sir Robert Tyrwhitt, charged with Elizabeth’s questioning, reported, ‘I do see it in her face that she is guilty.’ The young Princess would have to learn to mask her true feelings if she was to survive the tempestuous politics of Tudor England.

Elizabeth had grown close to the new king, her brother Edward, but the Seymour affair strained their relationship. Edward VI (left), Royal Collection Trust/ (c) Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II, RCIN 404747 and Thomas Seymour (right), © National Portrait Gallery, London If Edward had been suspicious of his sister’s behaviour, Elizabeth’s sister was doubly distrustful. After Edward’s early death in 1553, the two sisters rode into London together to celebrate Mary I’s coronation. But the show of togetherness did not last long.

  1. Mary’s controversial plans to marry Philip II of Spain, and to return England to the Roman Catholic church caused serious concern.
  2. Not only were the leading Protestant courtiers of Edward’s court facing arrest or worse, but many believed that Mary was placing England at risk of a Spanish take-over.
  3. Elizabeth became the focus for treasonable plots against her sister.

Thomas Wyatt’s rebellion of 1554 implicated Elizabeth directly. She was arrested and sent to the on 17 March. Mary I, by an unknown artist in the late 16th-century, copied from an original portrait by Anthonis Mor, © National Portrait Gallery, London On her arrest in 1554, Elizabeth wrote to Mary, imploring her to ignore ‘evil persuasions’ that would ‘persuade not one sister against the other.’ Elizabeth’s imprisonment at the Tower of London was comfortable enough physically – she was allowed in the gardens and had four rooms in the old palace – but this was where her mother had spent her last days before her execution. Elizabeth I’s greatest difficulty was her sex. The Protestant revolution had done nothing to dispel the 16th-century view of women as ‘the weaker vessel’ (a phrase used in one of the first English Bibles). The Scottish preacher John Knox had written a whole essay on the ‘monstrous regiment of women’, blaming them for most of the unrest and division of European politics. As early as February 1559, there was discussion in parliament about who Elizabeth should marry. The survival of the Tudor dynasty, and perhaps England’s Protestant future, demanded an heir. Foreign Catholic royalty seemed out of the question, not least because of the memories of Mary I’s disastrous marriage with Philip of Spain.

  • Suitably aristocratic and attractive English suitors were thin on the ground, with one exception.
  • Robert Dudley, later Earl of Leicester, was charismatic and good-looking.
  • He and Elizabeth even shared a past: childhood friends, both had been imprisoned at the Tower of London in 1554.
  • Dudley was now the Queen’s Master of the Horse, dancing partner at court, perhaps even her lover, but he was also married Portrait of Robert Dudley, by an unknown artist, c1575, © National Portrait Gallery, London Amy, Robert Dudley’s wife, fell to her death down a friend’s staircase in September 1560.

She was terminally ill, and this may have been suicide. But the same court gossip which imagined Dudley’s adultery with the Queen, now condemned him as an assassin. For Elizabeth, marrying him would have been a public relations disaster. Instead, the two remained close friends and perhaps more; Dudley’s rooms adjoined Elizabeth’s at court.

Dudley was made a member of the Queen’s council in 1562 and created Earl of Leicester in 1564. The Queen was devastated when he died in 1588, and reportedly kept his last letter in a bedside treasure box for the rest of her life. Elizabeth I dancing ‘La Volta’ with Robert Dudley, Earl of Leicester, by an unknown artist.

By kind permission of Viscount De L’Isle from his private collection at Penshurst Place, Kent, England With Elizabeth unmarried and without an heir, some looked to Elizabeth’s nearest relatives for a possible solution. Mary, Queen of Scots was Elizabeth’s distant cousin, a Catholic ruler of an increasingly Protestant Scotland, a fellow Tudor queen but also the young widow of Francis II, King of France.

  1. In 1568, Mary fled to England, her reputation destroyed by her involvement in her second husband’s murder, and her rule ended by a palace coup.
  2. With the Scottish queen now at her mercy, what was Elizabeth to do? Elizabeth was deeply torn, sympathetic but practical.
  3. Mary’s chaotic regime in Scotland was replaced by a Protestant regency under Mary’s infant son, James VI.

For once, the ‘auld enemy’ north of the border was a potential ally, not a threat. Mary, Queen of Scots by François Clouet, c1558: ‘La belle des belles’, or, as the English parliament called her in 1571, ‘the monstrous and huge dragon and mass of the earth.’ /© Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II 2019, RCIN 401229 Mary was now an inconvenient guest in England, kept under house arrest in the north, where she found supporters amongst the old Catholic aristocracy.

Mary became their radical and immediate solution to Elizabeth’s dynastic problem, but a plot to place her on the English throne was brutally suppressed by Elizabeth’s armies in 1569. Mary, Queen of Scots was the great-granddaughter of Henry VII of England. In 1570, Pope Pius V excommunicated Elizabeth, encouraging Catholics everywhere to rise up and depose the heretic queen.

It was a turning point: the rest of Elizabeth’s reign was bedevilled by plots and rumours of Catholic rebellion. In Europe, the 1570s saw some of the worst atrocities of the protracted fall-out of the Reformation. The St Bartholomew’s Day Massacre of 1572 saw Protestant Hugenot families slaughtered in their thousands, in an orgy of mob violence.

Portrait of Pope Pius V by the workshop of Bartolomeo Passarotti, c1566. © The Walters Art Museum Back in England, Elizabeth and her council endeavoured to keep the country at peace. William Cecil, Elizabeth’s chief minister, oversaw a mini industrial revolution: immigrant workers from the war-torn Netherlands expanded the skilled workforce, and England became a self-reliant manufacturer of all manner of goods, from tin to lace, glass to soap; land enclosures created grazing for profitable flocks of sheep.

The Bishop of Salisbury declared that never was England ‘better in worldly peace, in health and body, in abundance of victuals.’ Portrait of William Cecil, Lord Burghley, painted in the 1560s by an unknown artist, © National Portrait Gallery, London Elizabeth I and the Three Goddesses, by Hans Eworth, 1565.

  • Elizabeth takes the role of the legendary hero Paris, judging a classical beauty competition between Juno, Minerva and Venus, but the three goddesses are thrown into confusion by Elizabeth’s appearance, suggesting that the Queen outshines them all.
  • Royal Collection Trust/© Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II 2019, RCIN 403446 Portrait Miniature of Elizabeth I, by Nicholas Hilliard, c1595-1600.

The queen is in her 60s, but Hilliard has hidden Elizabeth’s ageing features behind a ‘mask of youth’. Royal Collection Trust/© Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II 2019, RCIN 421029 One of the most important surviving images of Elizabeth I (left), the ‘Darnley portrait’ was almost certainly painted from life, and the resulting pattern for the queen’s face was to be repeated for the remainder of her reign.

  1. The Phoenix Portrait (right), is associated with Nicholas Hilliard.
  2. © National Portrait Gallery, London Elizabeth’s court literally dazzled with exotic costumes and jewellery.
  3. Courtiers and merchants, enriched by trade, built spectacular ‘prodigy houses’ to display their wealth, with whole wings devoted to the occasional royal visit.

And when Elizabeth did come to stay, ludicrously expensive entertainments were staged in her honour. Thomas Tallis and William Byrd led a Renaissance revolution in music, while the composer and musician John Dowland made the lute a popular accompaniment for all festivities.

William Shakespeare and Christopher Marlowe directed Elizabethan cultural confidence onto the stage, while adventurers like Francis Drake and took Elizabethan ambition abroad. Raleigh sponsored the first British colonies in North America, naming ‘Virginia’ after the Queen, while Drake circumnavigated the globe between 1577-80.

Elizabethan England traded with Russia, Morocco and the Ottoman Empire. At Hampton Court Palace, Elizabeth created a ‘Paradise Room’, decorated with precious metals and gems to dazzle visitors. Raleigh sponsored the first attempts to establish British colonies in North America.

  • Although he did not lead these expeditions, Raleigh did sail to South America, exploring Guyana and Venezuela.
  • A later painting by Alfred Kingsley Lawrence, 1925-7, depicting Elizabeth I commissioning Raleigh’s American adventure in 1584,
  • © Parliamentary Art Collection, WOA 2597 To raise money for its foreign exploits, Elizabeth I issued tickets for England’s first national lottery (first prize, £5,000, which was a considerable sum!).

To encourage sales, all ticket holders were promised freedom from arrest from all crimes short of murder, piracy or treason! An advertisement for the first national lottery, issued in 1567, © The British Library Board To seek out priests and traitors, Walsingham constructed a network of spies.

His biggest prize was Mary, Queen of Scots, still under house arrest in England and the focus for plotters charged with replacing Elizabeth with a Catholic ruler. In 1586, Walsingham, having discovered the ‘Babington Plot’ to liberate Mary, fashioned an elaborate trap to ensnare her, letting the plot run its course until she revealed her support.

Elizabeth, after much hesitancy, ordered Mary’s execution, in the privacy of Fotheringhay Castle. If the execution of Mary Queen of Scots in 1587 was meant to bring an end to Catholic conspiracy, it achieved the opposite effect. Mary was now a Catholic martyr.

  • Imprisonment at the Tower of London, and torture in the name of national security, became a common fate for those discovered by Elizabeth’s counter-terrorism network.
  • Catholic enemies abroad were more difficult to defeat.
  • By 1585, Spain was finally winning its long campaign in the Netherlands against the armies of the Protestant Dutch resistance.

Philip II now looked across the sea. Philip II’s ‘Enterprise of England’ was not just a religious crusade but an attempt to bring an end to English piracy: the final straw came in 1587, when Drake audaciously attacked the Spanish fleet in Cadiz harbour itself.

To Philip II, Drake was little more than a pirate, licensed by Elizabeth I to raid Spanish shipping returning from South America laden with silver. But the following year, Philip’s armada of 130 ships failed to break through the English navy in the Channel, and was then destroyed in the storm-tossed waters of the Irish Sea.

The Spanish Armada off the English Coast in 1588, Cornelis Claesz. van Wieringen, c1620 – 1625. Courtesy of the Rijksmuseum

  1. The last decade of Elizabeth’s reign was all a bit of an anti-climax.
  2. Dudley, Elizabeth’s constant friend, died in 1588, Walsingham in 1590, Cecil in 1598, and they were succeeded at court by the latter’s son, Robert, and the impetuous figures of Raleigh and Robert Devereux, Earl of Essex.
  3. Courtiers battled for influence amidst accusations of bribery and corruption; poorly resourced and planned military campaigns led to defeats in Spain, France and Ireland.
  4. A wax impression of the Great Seal of Elizabeth I, 1586-1603, © Ashmolean Museum, University of Oxford
  • Despite the problems of her last years, the chronicler John Stow reported at her funeral, ‘There was such a general sighing, groaning and weeping as the like hath not been seen or known in the memory of man.’
  • Elizabeth I was buried in Westminster Abbey in a tomb shared with her rival and half-sister Mary I.
  • An early 17th-century manuscript recording the funeral procession of Elizabeth I, the first known visual record of the funeral of an English monarch. © The British Library Board

One of Elizabeth’s mottoes was ‘I see but say nothing’. The Queen avoided controversy when she could. There is no record of her ever mentioning her mother, Anne Boleyn, in public. Yet when she did speak, Elizabeth was an inspirational monarch, who – for the majority of her 44-year reign – commanded the loyalty of the ambitious men who ran her government.

  1. But Elizabeth was a Tudor.
  2. Like Henry VIII, she could be arrogant and spiteful, and also maddeningly indecisive.
  3. After ordering the execution of Mary, Queen of Scots, her adoption of mourning clothes, and pretence that the decision had not been hers, was an act of self-pitying hypocrisy worthy of her father.
  • The last years of her reign were beset by disagreements in her council, economic decline in the country, and the riddle she had never been able to solve: how an unmarried queen could provide an heir.
  • Yet, as the country tore itself apart once again during the Civil War of the 1640s, many still alive to remember looked back with longing to the Elizabethan era of stability and domestic peace.
  • Elizabeth I silver sixpence coin, 1594, © Royal Mint Museum

Things to see

How big was Queen Victoria when she died?

5 Things You May Not Know About Queen Victoria Queen Victoria’s outspoken nature and imposing reputation belied her tiny stature–the monarch was no more than five feet tall. In her later years, she also grew to an impressive girth. Some accounts claim she had a 50-inch waist by the end of her life, a conclusion supported by the impressive size of a nightgown and pair of bloomers (underwear) belonging to Victoria that were auctioned off in 2009.

What happened to Conor MC?

Reports emerged that McGregor’s punch had landed Burnie in the emergency room on Saturday, when Sam Amick of The Athletic wrote that the man who plays the mascot ‘ was given pain medication and has since been discharged from the hospital.’

Where is Nurmagomedov now?

Khabib Nurmagomedov retires as MMA coach; status for Islam Makhachev title fight up in the air Khabib Nurmagomedov, who coached Islam Makhachev to the UFC lightweight title he once held, shared a post via Instagram on Saturday indicating that he’s “leaving the MMA industry.” (Photo by Chris Unger/Zuffa LLC) Khabib Nurmagomedov retired early as a fighter, seemingly with a number of significant fights left in him.

  1. Now, it appears he’s doing the same as a coach.
  2. Nurmagomedov shared an Instagram post in Russian that indicated he’s leaving the sport.
  3. Javier Mendez, the coach at the American Kickboxing Academy in San Jose, California, confirmed to Yahoo Sports Nurmagomedov’s plans to retire.
  4. Mendez coached Nurmagomedov to the UFC lightweight title and then led Islam Makhachev to the belt coaching alongside Nurmagomedov.

Mendez said Nurmagomedov, who has two boys and a girl, has been away from his family a great deal. Mendez told Yahoo Sports that Nurmagomedov simply wants to spend time with his his family. “He just doesn’t want to miss being a father,” Mendez told Yahoo Sports.

  • He talked to me about three weeks ago and told me of his plan and said he planned to talk to the team and inform them of his decision.
  • He’s doing this for the right reasons.
  • He’s a family man and he simply wants to spend more time with his family.
  • In 2020, saying his mother asked him not to fight any more.

Now, he’s walking away, at least for the time being, from his spot as one of the sport’s most promising coaches for similar reasons.

When did Yoel Romero debut in UFC?

2013 – After Strikeforce was purchased and absorbed by the UFC, Romero made his promotional and middleweight debut against Clifford Starks on April 20, 2013, at UFC on Fox 7, He won the fight via flying knee knockout in the first round. This win earned him Knockout of the Night honors.

Romero was expected to face Derek Brunson on August 31, 2013, at UFC 164, However, Brunson suffered an injury and pulled out of the bout. Promotional newcomer Brian Houston was briefly linked as a replacement, however Houston was not medically cleared to compete at the event and the bout was canceled.

In his second UFC bout, Romero faced Ronny Markes on November 6, 2013, at UFC Fight Night 31, He won the fight via knockout in the third round.

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