From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
|Ripe orange fruits|
|Physalis peruviana L.|
Physalis peruviana is a species of plant in the nightshade family ( Solanaceae ) native to Chile and Peru, Within that region it is called aguaymanto, uvilla or uchuva, in addition to numerous indigenous and regional names. In English, its common names include Cape gooseberry, goldenberry and Peruvian groundcherry,
- 1 Is there black strawberry?
- 2 Do strawberry seeds exist?
- 3 Is there a green strawberry?
- 4 What are ruby strawberries?
- 5 Is strawberry color red or pink?
- 6 Are strawberries always red?
- 7 Why the colour of strawberry is red?
What are the colors of a strawberry?
Strawberry colors are bright reds and pinks based on the color of the fruit of the same name. The most iconic color of strawberries is the bright red color of the ripe fruit. However, it is also common for strawberry to be thought of as a light pink color.
Is there black strawberry?
Black Strawberries Don’t Exist – KT studio/Shutterstock Plant Carer says that while dark strawberries exist, they are a very dark purple and not jet black. The first faux black strawberry was created by John Robertson for the photographer Jonathan Knowles more than 20 years ago (via Laid Back Gardener ).
It was made of resin and black spray paint. Perhaps this is where the black strawberry rumor began? Real strawberries can and do grow in several colors. Yet, Nu Plant Care warns that black strawberries don’t exist, so don’t fall for this scam. The site also recommends avoiding any online seller claiming to sell black strawberry seeds.
Nu Plant Care recommends only buying from reputable sellers that offer legitimate seeds that bear real fruit, If you’re disappointed to learn that black strawberries don’t exist, take heart. According to Seeds and Spades, you can find strawberries that grow naturally in many other colors, including red, yellow, white, and purple.
Are there different Coloured strawberries?
Sweet ripe strawberries ( Fragaria spp.) come in colors ranging from deep burgundy to white and everything in between. Such variation attracts consumers and gardeners alike, making fruit color an important breeding target. Strawberry fruit receptacles vary in color due to different levels of anthocyanins.
- These water-soluble pigments are synthesized at the endoplasmic reticulum via the well-known flavonoid pathway and transported into the vacuole for storage.
- However, little is known about the network controlling this trait.
- The expression of structural genes involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis is fine-tuned by transcription factors such as MYB, bHLH, and WD-repeat proteins.
The R2R3 transcription factor MYB10 activates these genes during strawberry fruit development (Medina-Puche et al., 2014). An 8 bp insertion in the coding region of MYB10 was recently associated with the loss of anthocyanins in a white-fruited octoploid cultivated strawberry ( F, Cristina Castillejo and colleagues (2020) developed a large F 2 mapping population from a cross between red-fruited and white-fruited diploid woodland strawberry ( F. vesca ) accessions and explored the reason behind this variation via mapping-by-sequencing.
- A gypsy -transposon detected in MYB10 truncates this protein and knocks out anthocyanin biosynthesis in white-fruited strawberry.
- This fvmyb10-2 allele co-segregated with the white phenotype at a 1:2:1 ratio, as expected for a single-gene codominant trait.
- MYB10 target genes in the anthocyanin pathway were not expressed in accessions carrying fvmyb10-2,
However, besides anthocyanins, few metabolites were affected in these lines. Therefore, like red fruits, white fruits with downregulated MYB10 expression are rich sources of nutritional compounds other than anthocyanins. Transient overexpression of FvMYB10, but not fvmyb10-2, restored anthocyanin biosynthesis in a white-fruited accession.
The authors looked for various fvmyb10 alleles in a large panel of white-fruited woodland strawberry accessions collected worldwide, from Hawaii to Chile to Europe. Three different FvMYB10 alleles and a deletion of this gene were uncovered, indicating that mutations in MYB10 occurred independently in diverse ecological niches to drive the natural variation in strawberry fruit color.
Despite this exciting discovery, applying it to cultivated strawberry improvement is challenging due to the octoploid nature of this crop and the frequent homoeologous exchanges that have occurred following polyploidization. To further probe the genetic control of color variation in cultivated strawberry, Castillejo et al.
Performed a genome-wide association study of F, × ananassa populations with a wide range of fruit colors and mapped single nucleotide polymorphisms strongly associated with white fruit skin. An analysis of quantitative trait loci most strongly associated with fruit color variation in an interspecific ( F,
× ananassa × F. chiloensis ) population identified a locus harboring 171 annotated genes; again, MYB10 was the most likely causal gene. Genetic and transcriptomic analyses revealed that MYB10-2 is the dominant homoeolog regulating anthocyanin biosynthesis in developing fruit.
- The MYB10-2 promoter showed considerable polymorphism among accessions.
- A CACTA-like transposon in this promoter was associated with ectopic MYB10-2 expression in fruit flesh and anthocyanin production in red-fleshed accessions, in contrast to white-fleshed accessions.
- Overexpressing MYB10-2 under the control of a constitutive promoter complemented the white-fleshed phenotypes of various accessions (see figure), making this gene ripe for use in CRISPR-Cas9-mediated gene editing and marker-assisted breeding.
Jennifer Lockhart Science Editor [email protected] ORCID: 0000-0002-1394-8947 REFERENCES Castillejo et al. (2020). Allelic variation of MYB10 is the major force controlling natural variation in skin and flesh color in strawberry ( Fragaria spp.) fruit.
- Plant Cell 32: doi:10.1015/tpc20.00474.
- Medina-Puche, L., Cumplido-Laso, G., Amil-Ruíz, F., Hoffmann, T., Ring, L., Rodríguez-Franco, A., Caballero, J.L., Schwab, W., Muñoz-Blanco, J., and Blanco-Portales, R. (2014).
- MYB10 plays a major role in the regulation of flavonoid/phenylpropanoid metabolism during ripening of Fragaria x ananassa fruits.J.
Exp. Bot.65 : 401–417. Wang, H. et al. (2020). The control of red colour by a family of MYB transcription factors in octoploid strawberry ( Fragaria × ananassa ) fruits. Plant Biotechnology Journal 18 : 1169–1184.
Is there a purple strawberry?
Purple Wonder is a stunning berry to behold. The first purple strawberry has high sugar and antioxidant content, making it both super sweet and extra healthy. The ease of care and heavy harvest of fresh summer fruit makes Purple Wonder an obvious choice for those looking to try a berry that’s new and unique. Buy it from Burpee ! Jump to:
Introduction History Where to Grow Growing Conditions Notable Features Growing Tips Where to Buy Best Uses
Do yellow strawberries exist?
Small, yellow, flavorful alpine strawberry. Considered one of the best gourmet strawberries, Yellow Wonder has delightful aroma and fantastic flavor. Lacking the red color that attracts birds, fruits are spared, leaving more delicious harvests. Yellow Wonder berries are a luxurious, easy-to-pick treat.
Are there pink strawberries?
Current Facts – Awayuki strawberries, botanically a part of the Fragaria genus, are a rare, light pink variety belonging to the Rosaceae family. The delicate fruits are premium strawberries highly prized for their aroma, flavor, appearance, and texture.
The name Awayuki translates from Japanese to mean “light snow,” a descriptor that was given in honor of the fruit’s delicate texture and coloring. Awayuki strawberries obtain their unusual pink-hue from the natural process of restricting sunlight during cultivation. As the strawberries develop without normal levels of sunlight, the colored pigment responsible for the fruit’s signature red hue, anthocyanins, is reduced, creating light pink fruits.
Awayuki strawberries are only cultivated through a few farms across Japan and are grown for the Japanese luxury fruit market. The fruits are produced under a strict set of cultivation standards, contributing to the variety’s crisp but tender texture and sweet flavor, and once mature, the strawberries are harvested and packaged by hand, selecting the fruits with the best color, shape, and appearance.
Do strawberry seeds exist?
Why Do Strawberries Have Their Seeds on the Outside? “Why do strawberries have their seeds on the outside, instead of on the inside?” That was the question one of my daughters asked recently. I had no idea, so I reached out to, an associate professor of horticultural science at NC State.
And the answer surprised me. First off, strawberries don’t keep their seeds outside their fruit. Those things we think of as strawberry seeds aren’t seeds – and the big, red strawberry “fruit” isn’t technically a fruit. In “true” fruits, like peaches *, a flower is pollinated and then the flower’s ovary swells and becomes the fruit, with the seed or seeds in the middle.
Not so with strawberries. When a strawberry flower is pollinated, the fruit doesn’t swell. The fertilized ovaries in the flower form separate, small, dry fruits. Those “seeds” on the outside of a strawberry are actually the fruits, each of which contains a single seed.
- The ripe, red, fleshy part that we think of as the strawberry “fruit” is actually swollen receptacle tissue – the part of the plant that connected the flower to the stem.
- When a strawberry flower is pollinated, it triggers the receptacle tissue to grow and change.
- But that still doesn’t answer the question, it just changes it a little.
Why are the small, dry fruits located on the outside of the red, sweet thing that we all like to eat? The short answer is that we don’t really know which evolutionary forces caused the strawberry to develop the way that it did. However, Gunter notes, “there are a few fundamental reasons why plants have evolved different kinds of fruits.
- One reason is to attract something that spreads seeds.” A good example is,
- Scientists believe the avocado, with its enormous wood-like seed, evolved to be eaten that lived thousands of years ago.
- One of these animals would chow down on some avocados and either leave partially-eaten fruit (and its seed) nearby, or the seed would pass all the way through the animal and be left behind in its waste.
Since those giant beasts are no longer with us, avocados are now dependent on human intervention to spread their seeds. “A second evolutionary approach is for plants to find ways for their fruit to disperse on their own,” Gunter says. “For example, they may fly in the wind, like a dandelion, or be moved by the water, like a coconut.” The third option is for a plant to find ways for a fruit to deter animals from eating it.
- For example, the gingko fruit smells putrid,” Gunter says.
- The goal there is for the fruit to not get eaten, so that the seed can rely on the fruit’s nutrients to support its growth.” Presumably, the strawberry went for evolutionary option number one – attract something to spread the seeds.
- But we don’t know the specifics.
*Note: The example for a true fruit was originally an apple. And then someone told me that apples are not true fruits either. In fact, they belong to a group called pseudo-carps, or false fruits. That’s because the part we think of as the fruit is made from plant parts other than the ovary.
Is there a green strawberry?
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
|Fragaria viridis Weston|
Fragaria viridis, commonly called creamy strawberry or green strawberry is a species of strawberry native to Europe and central Asia, It has fruits with fine flavour. They have surprisingly little of the usual strawberry aroma, but a refreshing acidity, and sometimes ripen without becoming red.
What color are Japanese strawberries?
Characteristics of Japanese Strawberries – Japanese strawberries are notorious for having the following characteristics:
They are usually deep red in color. They do not have a hollow center. Most are quite sweet in flavor and have only a mild acidity. They are expensive!
An average pack of Japanese strawberries costs around 500 yen ($3.80). Remember, Japanese packs of strawberries are much smaller than the carton of strawberries you might find in your local supermarket. Not to mention, there are gift giving varieties of strawberries in Japan that can cost more than $100 USD!
Are there orange strawberries?
‘Orange Strawberry’ is a full-bodied, large, mid- to late-season variety that offers a rich, sweet taste. Suitable for fresh eating, salsas, canning, sauces.
What are ruby strawberries?
Fruit Edible Herbaceous Perennial strawberry ‘Ruby Ann’ ‘Ruby Ann’ is a seed-raised everbearer, producing small flushes of fruit from late spring to early autumn. The flowers are a striking, bright red but the dark red fruit are small with little taste
Is strawberry color red or pink?
What is the color Strawberry? – The color strawberry, unlike pink, is a more informal description of pink. That is, in the same way as pink; it can be achieved with the combination of red and white. Its use varies among cultures and is often of commercial roots.
In fact, most people would claim it to be a medium for in order to attract a certain group of consumers. The color pink and the color strawberry are essentially the same. Their difference lies in the manner that they are used. Those who greatly associate the color pink with the strawberry fruit will most likely face no confusions when coming across the term “color strawberry”.
And because of its connection to the fruit, whose actual color is closer to red than pink, the color strawberry is often regarded as a darker shade of pink. This usually has the effect of a sweeter disposition. The color strawberry is often used as a label for merchandise that wears the color pink.
Are strawberries always red?
Science | Why Strawberries Turn a Ghostly Shade of White https://www.nytimes.com/2021/10/29/science/strawberries-evolution-genetics-white.html Trilobites Researchers unlocked some of the genetic secrets that helped the colorful fruit evolve into so many varieties around the world. Credit. Li Xue and Jiajun Lei Strawberries are not always red. Fragaria nubicola, native to the Himalayas, can produce a vivid red fruit or a ghostly white one; another species, F. vesca, can produce a white fruit with brilliant scarlet seeds, as well as a conventional red type.
- What gives some strawberries such a ghostly pallor? One answer has been uncovered by scientists curious about the humble strawberry’s genetic material.
- There are numerous species of the fruit, and some sport five times as many chromosomes as others.
- Strawberry scientists think this means that as the plants evolved, they acquired extra genes that could provide a playground for unusual new traits.
While the core genes kept the day-to-day affairs of the plant running, the extras could be tweaked to yield a new shade of pink, a new hardiness to drought or particularly prickly leaves — whatever the strawberry’s unique environment demanded. In a paper published Monday in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, biologists reported that they have sequenced the genomes of a handful of strawberry species and identified a set of genes that are common across all of them, representing the core genome of the strawberry.
- Along the way, the researchers identified a set of mutations that turned strawberries white, while keeping the taste and aroma the same.
- The findings open the door to understanding how strawberries manage their bulky genetic inheritance, as well as suggesting the possibility of more targeted breeding.
Strawberries grow wild in places as varied as Alaska and Southern California beaches, said Patrick Edger, a professor of horticulture at Michigan State University and an author of the new paper. But they likely originated in Asia. For this study, the scientists collected samples from 128 wild strawberry plants in China and sequenced their genes, looking for commonalities across species.
As they pored over the data, they made a surprising discovery. “It was very clear there was another species” that no one had detected before, Dr. Edger said. Alongside a number of strawberries already known to science, a new species was found among the samples collected in the wild. The genetic analysis showed it was different from the others, and the plant looked different, too, with thicker leaves that had a light green underside, among other changes.
(The new species was named Fragaria emeiensis.) Image Credit. Li Xue and Jiajun Lei The scientists found that as many as 45 percent of a strawberry’s genes were shared among the 10 species examined in the paper. That implies that the remainder — more than half of a strawberry’s genetic material — is used to adapt a species to its particular location and situation.
- Breeders could bring these genes to existing commercial species in the future, helping strawberry farmers address problems like drought.
- It’s something that myself and collaborators in the larger strawberry community are going to start diving into this data set to understand,” Dr.
- Edger said.
- The research also pieced together the genetic puzzle of what makes some strawberry species turn white.
The team found that lighter fruits were linked to mutations in a gene called MYB10, which controls the production of pigments called anthocyanins. Lower levels of anthocyanins would be expected to result in a paler color. In this study, the strawberry species had two sets of chromosomes apiece.
Next, Dr. Edger and his colleagues plan to focus on species with eight sets of chromosomes, to explore how that extra genetic material is used and continue to clarify the core genome’s composition. As scientists understand more about what makes the fruits the way they are, Dr. Edger expects strawberry breeding to become more precise, and not just on matters of practical importance to farmers.
“A lot of breeding efforts have been focused on yield,” he remarked. But more and more, breeding programs are delving into improving strawberries’ flavor. Apples are infamous for reaching a low flavor appeal some decades ago, when beautiful, hard-traveling, but tasteless Red Delicious apples were one of the few options available in grocery stories.
These days, thanks to the efforts of plant breeders, it’s not hard to find apples bursting with flavor, and in a wide variety of colors and shapes, too. “I imagine,” Dr. Edger said, “strawberry is going to be the same way in 10 to 20 years.” A version of this article appears in print on, Section D, Page 2 of the New York edition with the headline: Pale Beauties: The Reason Some Strawberries Turn a Ghostly Shade of White,
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Why the colour of strawberry is red?
Strawberry Red; A Pigment Called Anthocyanin Is Responsible for Color.