Wild Strawberry (Fragaria virginiana) Wild Strawberry Fragaria virginiana Rose family (Rosaceae) Description: This herbaceous perennial plant is 4-7″ tall, consisting of several basal leaves and one or more inflorescences. The basal leaves are trifoliate.
- The leaflets are up to 2½” long and 1½” across; they are obovate or oval in shape and coarsely toothed along their middle to outer margins.
- The tips of leaflets are rounded, while their bottoms are either wedge-shaped or rounded.
- The upper leaflet surface is medium to dark green and glabrous.
- The lower leaflet surface is variably hairy; fine hairs are most likely to occur along the bases of central veins, but they may occur elsewhere along the lower surface.
Leaflet venation is pinnate and conspicuous. The petiolules (basal stalklets) of leaflets are light green, hairy, and very short (about 1 mm. in length). The petioles of basal leaves are up to 6″ long; they are light green to light reddish green, terete, and hairy.
- One or more umbel-like clusters of flowers are produced from long peduncles up to 5″ long.
- These peduncles are light green to light reddish green, terete, and hairy.
- Each umbel-like cluster has about 4-6 flowers on pedicels up to ¾” long.
- These pedicels are light green to light reddish green, terete, and hairy.
At the base of these pedicels, there are several bracts up to ¼” long that are light green to dark red, lanceolate in shape, and hairy. Individual flowers are about ½–¾” across when they are fully open; they can be pistillate, staminate, or perfect (staminate flowers are the least common). Each flower has 5 white petals, 5 green sepals, and 5 green sepal-like bracts. The petals are oval to orbicular in shape; they are longer than either the sepals or sepal-like bracts.
The sepals are lanceolate in shape and hairy, while the sepal-like bracts are linear-lanceolate and hairy; both sepals and sepal-like bracts are joined together at the base of the flower. Each pistillate flower has a dome-shaped cluster of pistils at its center that is greenish yellow or pale yellow.
Each staminate flower has 20-35 stamens with pale yellow filaments and yellow anthers. Each perfect flower has a dome-shaped cluster of pistils at its center and a ring of surrounding stamens. The blooming period occurs from late spring to early summer, lasting about 3-4 weeks.
- Afterwards, the flowers are replaced by fruits when growing conditions are favorable, otherwise they abort.
- These fruits are up to ½” long and across; they are globoid or globoid-ovoid in shape, becoming bright red at maturity.
- Small seeds are scattered across the surface of these fruits in sunken pits; the persistent sepals and sepal-like bracts are appressed to the upper surface of these fruits.
The fleshy interior of these fruits has a sweet-tart flavor; they are edible. The root system consists of a shallow crown with fibrous roots. After the production of flowers and fruits, hairy above-ground stolons up to 2′ long may develop from the crown. Cultivation: The preference is full or partial sun, moist to dry-mesic conditions, and fertile soil containing loam or clay-loam. Wild Strawberry is a cool-season plant that grows actively during the spring and fall, but it often becomes dormant after setting fruit during the hot summer months.
This plant is easy to cultivate, and it will spread to form a loose ground cover in open areas. The foliage is more resistant to foliar disease than most cultivated strawberries. While flowers are produced reliably every spring where there is adequate sunlight, the fruits may or may not develop, depending on the weather and environmental conditions.
Watering plants during dry spells in late spring and early summer probably encourages fruits to develop. These fruits are much smaller in size than those of cultivated strawberries. Range & Habitat: The native Wild Strawberry is common in most areas of Illinois, although in parts of NW and southern Illinois it is occasional or absent (see ).
Habitats include black soil prairies, hill prairies, bluegrass meadows, small meadows in wooded areas, open woodlands, woodland borders, savannas, limestone glades, roadsides, and areas along railroads. Wild Strawberry is able to tolerate competition from taller plants because it develops early in the spring, and it is able to tolerate some shade later in the year.
This plant occurs in both degraded and high quality habitats, often not far from wooded areas. Faunal Associations: The ecological value of Wild Strawberry to various insects, birds, and animals is high. The nectar and pollen of the flowers attract little carpenter bees ( Ceratina spp.), cuckoo bees ( Nomada spp.), mason bees ( Osmia spp.), Halictid bees (including green metallic bees), Halictid cuckoo bees ( Sphecodes spp.), Andrenid bees, Syrphid flies, thick-headed flies (Conopidae), Tachinid flies, bottle flies ( Lucilia spp.), flesh flies (Sarcophagidae), small butterflies, and skippers (see Robertson, 1929, & others).
These floral visitors are beneficial because they cross-pollinate the flowers. Other insects feed destructively on the foliage and other parts of Wild Strawberry. Caterpillars of the Grizzled Skipper ( Pyrgus centaurae wyandot ) feed on this plant. Other insect feeders include larvae of such moths as the Strawberry Crown Borer ( Synanthedon bibionipennis ), Strawberry Leafroller Moth ( Ancylis comptana fragariae ), and Wild Strawberry Seed Borer ( Grapholita angleseana ).
The has a more complete list of moth species that feed on this plant. Other insect feeders include the Strawberry Flea Beetle ( Altica ignita ) and other leaf beetles (Chrysomelidae), the Strawberry Sap Beetle ( Stelidota gemmata ), the Strawberry Root Weevil ( Otiorhynchus ovatus ) and other weevils (Curculionidae), larvae of the Strawberry Reniform Gall Midge ( Cecidomyia reniformis ), larvae of the Strawberry Cylindrical Gall Wasp ( Diastrophus fragariae ), larvae of the Curled Rose Sawfly ( Allantus cinctus ) and other sawflies, the Strawberry Aphid ( Chaetosiphon fragaefolii ) and other aphids, and flower thrips.
The has a more complete list of insect species that feed on this plant. Various vertebrate animals eat the fruits and foliage of Wild Strawberry. Some upland gamebirds and songbirds eat the fruits, including the Ring-necked Pheasant, Brown Thrasher, Eastern Towhee, Veery, and American Robin. Some mammals, including the American Black Bear, Opossum, Franklin Ground Squirrel, Eastern Chipmunk, and White-footed Mouse, also eat the fruits, as do the Eastern Box Turtle, Ornate Box Turtle, and Wood Turtle.
By eating the fruits, these animals spread the seeds to new locations. The foliage of Wild Strawberry is a source of food for the Ruffed Grouse and Cottontail Rabbit; it is also browsed by horses, cattle, sheep, and goats. The has a more complete list of vertebrate animals that feed on this plant. Photographic Location: The photographs were taken along a roadside near Urbana, Illinois; at Dave Monk’s postage stamp prairie in Champaign, Illinois; and at the wildflower garden of the webmaster in Urbana, Illinois. Comments: This is one of the parent plants for the cultivated strawberry ( Fragaria × ananassa ).
The other parent plant of the cultivated strawberry is the Coastal Strawberry ( Fragaria chiloensis ). This latter species is found along the Pacific Coast in both North and South America. The cultivated strawberry inherited the superior flavor of the Wild Strawberry ( Fragaria virginiana ) and the larger fruit size of the Coastal Strawberry.
The Wild Strawberry produces attractive white flowers during the spring and small red fruits during the early summer. It is similar in appearance to another native species, the Hillside Strawberry ( Fragaria vesca americana ). The fruits of Hillside Strawberry have sepals and sepal-like bracts that are spreading to reflexed, rather than appressed.
- 1 What eats a strawberry?
- 2 Can rabbits eat raw strawberries?
- 3 Do rabbits eat fruit in the wild?
Can rabbits eat wild strawberries?
Can rabbits eat strawberry leaves? – Your rabbit can safely eat any part of the strawberry, including the leaves. “You can remove the leafy parts if you so choose,” Tullio said. “Just remember wild rabbits eat the whole strawberry and it’s completely safe, but why not spoil your bunny?!”
What eats a strawberry?
If you are growing strawberries in your organic garden, eventually, there will pests that arrive to feed on them. While birds are a common annoyance for anyone growing berries, there are also several insect and gastropod pests that can be a problem. The most common strawberry pests are slugs, strawberry bud weevils, tarnished plant bugs, spittlebugs, and strawberry sap bugs.
Do foxes eat strawberries?
What do foxes eat? – Foxes have a really diverse diet. They are expert hunters, catching rabbits, rodents, birds, frogs and earthworms as well as eating carrion. But they aren’t carnivorous – they are actually omnivores as they dine on berries and fruit too.
Do strawberries attract cats?
Why do cats like strawberries? | ECOVIEWS I recently received the following questions about cats, birds and lizards.Q. I have had pet cats and dogs for years, but just witnessed something I have never seen before. When I set a bag with strawberries on the kitchen floor, my cat walked in, sniffed the bags, then lay down and started rubbing his face all over the plastic box that held the strawberries. Why would a cat go crazy over strawberries as if it were catnip? A. Having had several cats myself, I long ago decided I will never understand what makes them decide to do what they do. I asked a friend who keeps inside cats about your observation. She said, “Strawberries and mint plants apparently have a chemical profile similar to nepetalactol, the attractant found in catnip. I have seen videos of cats rubbing their faces on strawberry baskets. Something definitely appeals to them.” Cats are noted for their inexplicable behaviors, but their attraction to catnip and presumably to chemicals inherent in strawberries has a functional basis. In 2021 researchers from Japan and England published a paper in the journal Science Advances offering an explanation. The organic chemical nepetalactol repels insects, including mosquitos. In the study, cats that rubbed their faces on catnip were protected from mosquito bites. Knowing that cats have a practical reason for one of their offbeat actions detracts only slightly from my wonderment at their otherwise mysterious ways.Q. We are enjoying watching two birds build a nest in a tree outside our upstairs window and we admire all their hard work. How will the mother bird get food and water to her baby birds? A. The answer of how baby birds attain nourishment varies from bird to bird. Most nesting birds around our residential yards (blue jays, cardinals, wrens, etc.) feed babies in the nest before they fledge. Birds that feed their young in the days following hatching are called altricial. The word comes from a Latin word that means “to nourish.” Altricial birds not only benefit from parental care at birth, they depend on being fed until they can fly and seek their own food. In many bird species, both the male and female bring bugs, especially caterpillars, to the open-mouthed babies. Hawks, eagles and owls bring larger animals to their young while they are still in the nest. I’m not aware of any bird that brings water to nestlings. The babies obtain water from the food they eat. Some birds, called precocial, have babies that hit the ground (or water) running within minutes after they hatch. They may follow their mother around while learning how to forage, but they begin feeding themselves as soon as they are born. Precocial birds include chickens, ducks, geese and quail.Q. A lizard lives between the basement and first floor of my house. My 2-year-old almost had a full-blown panic attack this morning as she came running to tell me about a “monster!” I didn’t know what she was talking about until I encountered the skink in the basement just a moment ago. How can I safely remove this little critter? I have been holding my little girl all day long because she is so afraid of this lizard.A. The easiest way to remove a skink is to corner it and catch it by hand. The tail will probably break off but will grow back. It might try to bite, but a small one does not hurt. As far as your little girl goes, I would start showing her pictures of lizards and snakes in a book, explaining that they are a part of the natural world and have no intention of hurting anyone, including her. Take walks outside and look at insects, spiders, birds and other wild things with her. Sometimes children develop an irrational fear because they have not fully grasped that most animals we encounter mean us no harm and they need to be reassured. Good luck. Whit Gibbons is professor of zoology and senior biologist at the University of Georgia’s Savannah River Ecology Laboratory. If you have an environmental question or comment, email [email protected], : Why do cats like strawberries? | ECOVIEWS
What are foxes favorite fruits?
Plants. Red foxes eat a lot of plants including grasses, acorns, tubers, grains, and even fungi. Although Red foxes enjoy vegetation, in the autumn, they prefer to eat fruits. Cherry, persimmon, mulberry (blueberry), grape, plum, apple, and raspberry are some of their favorites.
What do foxes hate to eat?
What Do Foxes Hate? – There will always be one female wasp, known as the queen in the nest. Alongside the queen, there will be male wasps a The best way to get rid of rural and urban foxes is through the things they hate! Foxes will avoid any area that is filled with things that they don’t like.
- This is a natural way to deter foxes! For example, foxes hate natural ingredients like chili pepper, garlic, capsaicin, and a chemical compound called alliinase.
- Sprinkling these foods around your garden will naturally prevent foxes coming near your home and garden.
- Foxes also hate water, flashing lights, and loud noises.
We’ll cover all of this in more detail later!
What are foxes most favorite food?
What Do Foxes Eat? – The fox diet changes based on what is available. These animals are omnivores, so foxes eat anything from berries to small birds. They are opportunistic predators and scavengers. Food scraps, fallen fruit, and unsecured garbage cans may attract these wildlife pests.
Do chickens eat wild strawberries?
Chickens can eat fresh strawberries as an occasional sweet treat. However, there are some caveats, and they should not eat the tops, stems, or leaves. We discuss the benefits of strawberries and what to avoid.
Can chickens eat strawberries Nutritional Value of Strawberries for Chickens Can Chickens Eat Strawberry Tops, Stems, and Leaves? What are the Dangers of Feeding Strawberries to Chickens?
Chickens can eat fresh strawberries in moderationStrawberries are a treat and high in sugarAvoid feeding tops, stems, and leavesWash them very well and make sure there is no moldPrefer organic food over store-bought berriesDon’t feed jams or processed food
Can hamsters eat wild strawberries?
Fruit Supplementation – Supplementation is an important aspect of a hamster diet, and the little guys do well with many different types of fruit. Offer your hamster tiny bites of fruit every two to three days. Make sure your pet never is near any spoiled fruit pieces, however.
Can rabbits eat raw strawberries?
What should I feed my rabbit? – In the wild, rabbits spend much of their time grazing, with grass forming the major part of their daily food intake. Grass may not be so readily available for our pet bunnies, so they should be offered unlimited hay as a substitute.
As a rough guide, they should eat a quantity of hay the same size as their own body each day. This should be supplemented with a tablespoon of high-quality bunny food. Muesli-style diets can sometimes raise the problem of selective feeding, in which the rabbit picks out their favourite ingredients and leaves the others behind.
If this is the case with your bun, it’s best to choose an alternative diet that your pet will eat in its entirety. Bunnies should also be offered a handful of fresh vegetables to ensure they get all the nutrients that they need; carrots, cabbage, or dandelion leaves are a good choice.
- For more information, check out our article with all you need to know about,
- So, can rabbits eat strawberries? Strawberries are non-toxic and fed in very small quantities are unlikely to cause harm.
- However, there are plenty of veggie treats that are a more suitable choice, so save the strawberries for yourself and reach for more bunny-friendly options for your pet’s daily portion of fresh veg.
: Can rabbits eat strawberries? – Vital Pet Club – Expert pet advice from vets
Can rabbits have wild berries?
If you have ever seen rabbits foraging in the hedgerows or watched your own pet meandering around the brambles in your yard, you may have wondered whether it’s safe for rabbits to eat blackberries. Many people enjoy these treats, but are they bunny-friendly? Blackberries are safe for your rabbit as long as it isn’t eating large amounts of them or too much other fruit.
Do rabbits eat fruit in the wild?
What do wild rabbits normally eat? – Rabbits are natural foragers. They will eat just about any kind of plant material they can find. Throughout most of the year, this will consist of grass combined with yummy leafy plants they can find naturally, such as clover and wildflowers.
While there are certainly plants and flowers that are poisonous to rabbits, for the most part they have a digestive system that is able to handle plant material better than other, carnivorous animals. This means that wild rabbits can eat a wide variety of plants from their surrounding environment to eat more nutrients and stay healthy.
Examples of a natural wild rabbit diet include:
- Grasses: wheatgrass, meadow grass, fescue, bluegrass, ryegrass, Bermuda, orchard, timothy, etc. Typical lawn grass is edible for wild rabbits but is less nutritious than wild grasslands.
- Weeds: dandelion, clover, crabgrass, ragweed, nettle, chickweed, etc.
- Bark and twigs: Willow bark and twigs, apple tree sticks, raspberry and blackberry bush twigs, birch, poplar, rose bushes and twigs, maple, cottonwood, etc.
- Flowers: Roses, daisies, sunflowers, marigold, lavender, chamomile, violets, pansies, etc.
- Herbs: Cilantro, parsley, basil, mints, oregano, sage, thyme, rosemary, dill, etc.
When they are available, wild rabbits will also eat fruits and vegetables from gardens or bushes. However, these are a much smaller part of their natural diet than most people think. Flowers, leafy plants, and grass make up the vast majority of what wild rabbits eat on a daily basis.
Can bunnies have moldy strawberries?
House Rabbit Diet
House Rabbit Diet Age Guidelines
|Rabbits under the age of 6 months||
Alfalfa-based pellets (such as ) An unlimited amount of timothy hay A handful of alfalfa Fresh water
Slowly switch to Timothy-based pellets (such as ) An unlimited amount of Timothy hay Slowly decrease the amount of Alfalfa Slowly introduce small amounts of vegetables and fruits to your rabbit one at a time (parsley, dill, and endive are good vegetables to start with) Fresh water
1/8 to ¼ of a cup of Timothy-based pellets An unlimited amount of Timothy hay Three quarters of a cup of fresh vegetables daily (3 different types of vegetables with at least one that contains Vitamin A) A small amount of fruit 2 or 3 days a week Fresh water
Safe Vegetables (* indicates that the vegetable contains Vitamin A)
Basil Beet Greens (tops)* Bok Choy Brussels Sprouts Carrots and Carrot Tops* Celery (MUST be cut up into very small pieces) Cilantro Collard Greens* Dill Endive* Escarole Green Peppers Mint Mustard Greens* Parsley* Peppermint Leaves Radicchio Radish Tops Romaine or Red Leaf Lettuce* Watercress* Wheat Grass
Apple (Fruit only! Remove stem and seeds) Blueberries Bananas (Fruit only, no skin. Bananas should only be given as a special treat) Grapes (Fruit only. Grapes should only be given as a special treat) Orange (Remove peel and seeds) Papaya (Remove skin and seeds) Pear (Fruit only! Remove stem and seeds) Pineapple (Remove skin and leaves) Strawberries (Fruit only! Remove leaves)
Rabbits who are too thin, have trouble keeping weight on, are gestating, or are lactating can benefit from eating alfalfa and alfalfa-based pellets Do not give your rabbit any pellet mix that has seeds and colorful stuff in it. It is very bad for your rabbit. Do not treat your rabbit like a garbage disposal. They cannot eat any fruits or vegetables that are going bad, wilting, or getting moldy. If you wouldn’t eat it, then don’t give it to your rabbit. Please note that what your rabbit eats can have an effect on the color of their urine. For example, foods high in Vitamin C cause a rabbit’s urine to turn to a reddish color. Normal rabbit urine can be yellow, orange, clear, white, or red-orange. If you suspect that your rabbit may actually have blood in their urine, call your, Do not give broccoli to rabbits. It will give them painful gas. Never give your rabbit kale or spinach. Kale and spinach can cause health problems over time, due to the high amount of oxalates and goitrogens.
Only give small amounts of fruit 2 or 3 days a week because the natural sugar in fruits can make bunnies fat and cause their teeth to rot. Bananas and grapes are very high in sugar and should only be given in small amounts (like 3 grapes or 3 thin slices of banana) 2 or 3 times a month as a treat.
Wash all fruits and vegetables thoroughly to get rid of any pesticides, chemicals, and bugs. Check carefully for bugs. Introduce fruits and vegetables slowly one at a time over several weeks. If something gives causes diarrhea, do not feed it to the rabbit. Many believe that papaya and pineapple contain enzymes that help break down food that could clump hair in a rabbit’s intestines or stomach, therefore reducing the risk of a gastric trichobezoar (hairball). You can also give to your rabbit. Timothy hay also plays an important role in the prevention of trichobezoars. (Timothy hay provides the fiber needed to keep things moving through a rabbit’s digestive system.)
House Rabbit Food Pyramid (click to enlarge) : House Rabbit Diet